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Parental Expectations & Effect of Perceived Academic Stress on Students Performance
Journal of Psychology & Psychotherapy

Journal of Psychology & Psychotherapy
Open Access

ISSN: 2161-0487

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Research Article - (2022)Volume 12, Issue 2

Parental Expectations & Effect of Perceived Academic Stress on Students Performance

Andleeb Haider*
 
*Correspondence: Andleeb Haider, Department of Psychology, University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan, Email:

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Abstract

The aim of the present study is to examine the relationship between parental expectations and academic achievement of the students at university level. A sample of 100 students was randomly selected from students of Foundation University Rawalpindi campus. Data were collected by using the perception of parent expectation inventory scale. Pearson correlation, bivariate statistics were run for data analysis. It was found that non-significant relation exist between parental expectations (r=.055) and academic achievements. T-test revealed parental expectations (t=1.89) and Academic Achievements (t=2.95) showed significant gender differences and negative relationship among female students. Therefore, it is concluded that parental expectations is one of the factor which is responsible for female students’ underachievement and low performance but it can be managed by appropriate training of students in dealing with factors causing academic stress.

Keywords

Academic achievements; Parental expectation; University students

Introduction

The character of parental expectations in affecting children’s academic improvement has acknowledged substantial attention from sociologist and psychologists over the previous half century. In general, parental expectations have been found to play a serious role in children’s academic success. Students whose parents hold high expectations get higher grades, achieve higher scores on standardized tests, and proceed longer in school than do those whose parents hold comparatively near to the ground expectations [1].

One of the few ideas in psychology that is nearly beyond question is that parental expectations and aspirations having substantial, or even large, effects on the achievements of their children. In several recent studies positive correlations between parental expectations and student achievement have been documented [1].

However, things may not be as forthright as “expectations manipulate achievement”. In a longitudinal study of Latino students and their parents, researchers made use structural equation models and accomplished that previous student achievement influenced consequent parental expectations. In association, earlier parental expectations were not found to be a cause of the students’ subsequent academic achievement [2].

About two-thirds (63.5%) of the students considered academic pressure as a cause of stress-with no major differences across gender, age, grade, and some other individual factors. About two-thirds (66%) of the students reported that feeling pressure from their parents results in better academic performance. The degree of parental pressure experienced differed considerably across the educational levels of the parents, mother’s occupation, number of private tutors, and academic performance. In exacting, children of fathers who possess a lower education level (nongraduates) were found to be more likely to perceive stress for better academic performance. Adolescents mental emotional and social developments are drastically influenced by parents [3,4]. According to expectancy value theories, people judge the instrumentality of probable choices, weigh their price and profit, and then select the course of act with highest expected value [5].

Almost 32.6% (one-third) of the students were symptomatic of psychiatric concerns and 81.6% reported anxiety related to examination. Academic stress was certainly linked with pressure from parents and psychiatric problems, at the same time examination-related anxiety also was positively related to psychiatric troubles. Academic stress is a severe concern which affects almost two thirds of senior high school students in Kolkata. As an alternative of exploring the potential for their offspring’s maximum probable values, parents influence by imposing their expectations on them through their participation, monitoring, obedience and support. Parental expectations are the desires about their children academic performance and profession ambitions. Due to the expectations, parents are worried during rearing of youth. During this time period Parents may re-evaluate their academic achievements or occupational achievements, deciding whether they have met their youthful ambitions of achievement.

A lot of parents consider that transmitting a sense of high expectations to children is one way to inculcate them with self-honour, self-assurance and distinct standard of worth and importance. But for the most part of the time these expectations are idealistic and unachievable. High expectations to be successful can be devastating; in some cases it can be harmful too. Parents often compress down and put high pressure on the youngsters to conform to parental values.

Many studies reported the association between parental expectations and psychological adjustment, psychological distress and academic performance in diverse countries [3,6].

High parental expectations are also related to student motivation to achieve in school, academic and social resilience, and aspirations to attend college.

Yet the term “parental expectations” has been well-defined in diverse ways in the literature, the majority of researchers explain parental expectations as rational beliefs or judgments that parents have about their children’s future accomplishment as reflected in course grades, utmost level of schooling attained, or college attendance [2,7].

However Parental expectations are based on an evaluation of the child’s academic capabilities as well as the existing possessions for sustaining a given level of achievement. Many researchers operationalized parental expectations by asking parents “how far” they think their child will go in school or by asking them to predict what grades a child will obtain that year. Rarely, researchers have also asked about student perceptions of parental expectations as a proxy for parental expectations themselves [8].

Research on parental participation and academic consequences in the US proposes that parental involvement is best understood as taking multiple forms. At a least amount, parental involvement appears to be changed based on the context (i.e., at home vs. in school) [9]. The Research study also demonstrates that parental involvement at home and in school is connected positively to an array of academic outcomes [9]. On the other hand, research on parental involvement in school is extra mixed than research on involvement at home, predominantly among different racial and ethnic groups [10].

Parental expectations can be contrasted with parental aspirations, which typically refer to needs, desires or goals that parents have created concerning their children’s future accomplishment rather than what they practically expect their children to achieve. To the level that parental aspirations replicate the value parents place on education, they are based on parents’ personal goals as well as municipal norms about training and its part in encouraging professional and personal attainment [11].

Parental attributions about the causes of victorious school performance are likely to influence the relation between students’ earlier performance and parents’ expectations about upcoming performance. Parents who feature achievement outcomes mainly to capability or intelligence expect performance to be constant because ability tends to be viewed as a stable entity that is not easy for the individual to modify [12]. For parents with this certainty, earlier period performance is likely to be viewed as a consistent indicator of upcoming accomplishment. Those who consider that students’ effort-a more convenient and uneven commodity-is the main cause of achievement are more liable to believe that future performance can potentially be diverse from that of the past if the student changes the amount of exertion they put into their school work. Researchers lean to determine parental aspirations by asking the year of schooling parents “desire” or “expect” their children to attain [2,13].

At-home parental involvement activities (e.g., examination homework, interactive about school, and reading with children) are shown to be associated to constructive academic outcomes of minority students in the United States [9]. Similarly, parental involvement at home in Ghana is related positively with youth academic performance [14].

Even though Ghanaian parents frequently are occupied in their children’s schooling in one form or another, their concern historically has been restricted to activities at home (e.g., ensuring completion of homework) [14].

The study of expectations as cause of academic stress among college freshmen is important undertaking especially when stress is recognized to influence students’ well-being and achievement in college. As a matter of reality, numerous studies have already acknowledged the effects of stress on students. Emotional disabilities, aggressive behaviour, shyness, social phobia, and often lack interest in otherwise pleasant activities are the most frequent signs of stress.

Stress is a lifestyle crisis Masih, et al. [15], and can be “any factor, acting within or outwardly, which makes adjustment to environment hard and which induces greater than before effort on the part of the individual to continue a state of equilibrium among him and her and the external environment”. Furthermore, “stress is abnormal problem in that no one can constantly forecast the amount or type of stress that can turn an otherwise normal, positive human condition into one concerning an irregular, irrational response”. Specifically, “in eastern philosophies, stress is considered to be a deficiency of inner peace”.

Stress and anxiety in kids and adolescents are just as common as in adults. Negligence and high expectations of parents in academic or other performances abused childhood, increasing tensions and demand for familial duty etc. There are a variety of coping strategies used by students when experiencing academic stress. Some way out to avoidant coping; alcohol/drug abuse, denial and behavioural disengagement; while others cope actively through acceptance, planning, and positive reframing and taking the essential steps to overcome the academic stress. It was studied that majority of adolescents in the stressed and unstressed groups were in the age group of 14-16 years. Adolescents who were under stress perceived academics as a troublesome.

It was found that parental education appeared to be connected to academic achievement of students. While on one hand, parental involvement leads to improved social adjustment and academic achievement, on the other hand over aspirations and negative attitude of the parents lead to depression among students. Parents usually set idealistically high goals for their children and expect them to fulfil their expectations.

Debet found that the incidence of parental pressure differs drastically with differences in the educational levels of the parents, mother’s occupation, number of private tutors, and academic performance. Fathers who possess a lower education level (non-graduates) were considered to be more expected to pressurize their children about better academic performance. Indian children from non-disrupted families have higher academic stress than children from disrupted families. It is likely that the children from disrupted families get less attention and guidance from their parents regarding academic matters than do their counterparts in non-disrupted families. This, paradoxically, reduces their academic stress, thus highlighting the negative impact of the parental vigilance and persuasion on the academic lives of their children.

Findings regarding the expectations of Latino and African Americans relative to other groups are somewhat not consistent. In four studies, Latino parents articulated considerably lesser expectations than one or more other groups, but one current study using the ECLS-K data found that Latinos had higher expectations for their kindergarteners than African American and European American parents after controlling for maternal education, family earnings and maternal depression.

Researchers have investigated that African American parents held considerably higher expectations than European American parents after controlling for Socioeconomic Status (SES), while one study reported no significant difference between the two groups after SES was controlled.

When children are not capable to come up to the expected standards, they are accused of being lethargic or dull which induces a sense of inferiority among young people and rarely leads to drastic outpourings by them in the form of mental disorders depressions and even suicides. Furthermore, on the basis of empirical facts, it was recognized that “academic stress and in particular, academic expectations, is a factor causative to suicidal ideation in youth.” They later on found that youth depression “partially mediate the relationship between academic stress and suicidal ideation in a four-step sequential process, via the use of multiple regression”.

In the academic atmosphere, high expectations, information excess, academic pressure, idealistic ambitions, inadequate opportunities, and high competitiveness are some of the ordinary sources of stress that generate tension, fear, and anxiety in students.

“In an Asian context, academic stress arising from adolescents’ self-expectations and expectations of others, for example parents and teachers are particularly salient”. Such claim was parallel with the results of the study conducted by Goyette, et al. [16] in the United States of America. The researchers found that “parental expectations play a vital part in explaining the Asian-white gap for all cultural groups and stand out as the only explanatory factor accounting for Southeast Asian students’ comparatively high expectations [16].

It was found that Indian children from non-disrupted families have higher academic stress than children from disrupted families. It is likely that the children from disrupted families get less attention and guidance from their parents regarding academic matters than do their counterparts in non-disrupted families. This, paradoxically, reduces their academic stress-thus highlighting the negative impact of the parental vigilance and persuasion on the academic lives of their children. Adolescence is a dangerous period of time where young people experience self-organization and role confusion. For them, stress mainly comes from academic tests, interpersonal relations, relationship problems, life changes, and career exploration. Such stress may usually cause psychological, physical, and behavioural problems.

According to statistics of 2005-2008 by Campus security report, ministry of education, the number of suicide (including selfinjury) cases is the maximum among college/university students, and female students take a much bigger proportion of the suicide (including self-injury) cases. Amongst the causes of suicide or selfinjury, problems in relationship are the principal cause, followed by depression and academic stress. Apparently, stress is the major cause of suicide (or self-injury) among college/university students (Campus security report centre, ministry of education). As the number of college students in Taiwan has considerably improved in recent years, this study focused on college students in Taiwan to discover their stress sources and coping strategies all the way through a questionnaire survey (Campus security report centre, ministry of education).

It was considered that some physiological symptoms such as headache were signals of a mental burden. Other signals included fatigue, depression, anxiety, dissatisfaction with certain interpersonal relations, alteration of the current sleeping habit, and extreme gain/loss of body weight [17].

When parents expect their children to be successful academically, they accomplish more than they otherwise would have. Several psychologists, social workers, teachers, principals, and parents are aware that parent involvement is essential for child development.

Frequent studies have found a positive relationship between parents’ expectations (e.g., expecting that their children will earn a Bachelor’s degree or more or expecting them to do well in school) and children’s academic achievement.

The positive effects of strong parental expectations on children’s achievement have been found in studies that followed children and parents for several years, even when controlling for parents’ involvement and children’s premature cognitive ability. In addition, these studies span the extent of kindergarten to 12 grade and have been imitated with various ethnic samples and nationally representative samples. Parents who expect their children to do well express that expectation to their children and provide suitable support at home e.g., reading with them commonly prior to and during the preschool years and taking their children to the public library; so that their children believe that they can do well academically. Positive expectations are transmittable, especially between parents and children.

Theories on stress

Systemic stress/Selye’s theory: The recognition of the stress concept in science and mass media stems primarily from the work of the endocrinologist Hans Selye [18]. In a chain of studies on animals he detected that a diversity of stimulus events (such as heat, cold, toxic agents) applied strongly and are also able of producing common effects, meaning not precise to either stimulus event. (In addition these nonspecific changes in the body, each stimulus yields, its exact effect, heat, for example, produce vasodilatation, and cold vasoconstriction.

According to Selye, these non-specifically caused changes compose the stereotypical, that is, particular, response pattern of systemic stress [18]. Selye well-defined this stress as ‘a state manifested by a syndrome which consists of all the non-specifically induced changes in a biologic system’ [18].

This stereotypical response pattern, which is recognized as the ‘General Adaptation Syndrome’ (GAS), takes place in three stages. The alarm reaction consists of a principal shock phase and a subsequent counter shock phase. The shock phase shows autonomic excitability, an improved adrenaline release, and gastro-intestinal ulcerations. The counter shock phase marks the preliminary operation of defensive processes and is categorized by greater adrenocortical activity. If poisonous stimulation remains, the organism moves in the stage of resistance. In this stage, the symptoms of the alarm reaction fade away; this indicates the organism’s adaptation to the stressor. On the other hand, as resistance to the noxious stimulation increases, resistance to additional stressors declines at the same time.

If the aversive stimulation remains, resistance suggestions means to the stage of exhaustion. The organism’s potential of adapting to the stressor is exhausted, the symptoms of stage (a) come back, but resistance is no longer possible. Irreversible tissue harms appear, and, if the stimulation persists, the organism will die.

Even though Selye’s work persuaded entire generation of stress researchers, marked weaknesses in his theory soon became evident [18]. First of all, Selye’s idea of stress as a reaction to a multitude of diverse events had the fatal consequence that the stress concept became the melting pot for all kinds of approaches [18]. Thus, by becoming a synonym for different terms such as, for example, anxiety, threat, conflict, or emotional arousal, the idea of stress was in danger of losing its scientific value.

Besides this overall reservation, specific critical problems have been raised. One criticism was focused at the theory’ score assumption of a nonspecific causation of the GAS. Mason pointed out that the stressors detected as effective by Selye carried a common emotional meaning [18]. They were novel, strange, and unfamiliar to the animal.

The Lazarus Theory: Two concepts are central to any psychological stress theory: Appraisal, i.e., individuals’ evaluation of the significance of what is happening for their well-being, and coping, i.e., persons’ efforts in thought and action to cope specific demands [17]. Since its first presentation as a comprehensive theory [17], the Lazarus stress theory has undergone several vital revisions [17]. In the latest version [17], stress is viewed as a relational concept, i.e., stress is not defined as a specific kind of external stimulation nor a specific pattern of physiological, behavioural, or subjective reactions. Instead, stress is viewed as a relationship (‘transaction’) between individuals and their environment. The idea of appraisal, introduced into emotion research by Arnold and elaborated with respect to stress procedures by Lazarus [17], is a main factor for understanding stress-relevant transactions. This idea is based on emotional procedures (including stress) are dependent on actual expectancies that individuals manifest with regard to the significance and consequence of a specific encounter. This concept is essential to explain individual differences in quality, intensity, and duration of an elicit motion in environments that are objectively equal for different persons [17].

It is generally expected that the resulting state is made, maintained, and eventually altered by a specific pattern of appraisals. These appraisals, in turn, are determined by a number of personal and situational factors. The most significant factors on the personal side are motivational dispositions, goals, values, and comprehensive expectancies. Related situational parameters are predictability, controllability, and imminence of a potentially stressful even [17].

In his monograph on emotion and adaptation, [17] established a comprehensive emotion theory that also comprises a stress theory [17]. This theory distinguishes two basic forms of appraisal, primary and secondary appraisal [17].

‘Psychological stress refers to association with the environment that the person appraises as important for his or her wellbeing and in which the demands tax or exceed available coping resources’ [17]. This definition points to two procedures as central mediators within the person-environment transaction: Cognitive appraisal and coping. Students are subjected to altered kinds of stressors, such as the pressure of academics with an obligation to succeed, an uncertain future and difficulties of integrating into the system. The students also face emotional and physical, social and family problems which may affect their learning skill and academic performance [17].

Too much stress can cause physical and mental health problems, decrease students’ self-esteem and may affect students’ academic achievement. In recent years there is a growing appreciation of the stresses involved in medical training. Studies have classified the sources of stress into three main areas: Academic pressures, social issues and financial problems. In addition to educating in a professional medical course it is also significant to take into account the value of life of the students during the years of medical training. Earlier studies have emphasized this point [17].

Resource theories of stress: A bridge between systemic and cognitive viewpoints

Unlike approaches deliberated so far, resource theories of stress are not principally concerned with factors that generate stress, but with resources that preserve well-being in the face of stressful encounters. Numerous social and personal constructs have been planned, such as social support, sense of coherence, Hardiness, or optimism.

Whereas optimism and self-efficacy are solitary protective factors, hardiness and sense of coherence represent tripartite approaches. Hardiness is a mixture of three components: Internal control, commitment, and a sense of challenge as conflicting to threat. Likewise, sense of coherence contains believing that the world is eloquent, predictable, and basically benevolent. Within the social sustenance field, numerous types have been investigated, such as instrumental, informational, appraisal, and emotional support. The freshly offered Conservation of Resources (COR) theory assumes that stress occurs in any of three contexts: When people experience loss of resources, when resources are threatened, or when people invest their resources without subsequent gain. Four categories of resources are proposed: Object resources (i.e., physical objects such as home, clothing, or access to transportation), condition resources (e.g., employment, personal relationships), personal resources (e.g., skills or self-efficacy), and energy resources (means that facilitate the attainment of other resources, for example, money, credit, or knowledge).

Lazarus and co-workers drew a number of testable hypotheses (called principles) resulting from basic assumptions of COR [17].

1. Loss of resources is the main source of stress. This principle opposes the fundamental guess of approaches on critical life events that stress happens whenever persons are forced to readjust themselves to situational circumstances, may these circumstances be positive (e.g., marriage) or negative (e.g., loss of a beloved person). In an empirical test of this basic principle, found that only loss of resources was linked to distress.

2. Resources act to preserve and protect other possessions. Selfesteem is a significant resource that may be beneficial for other incomes. For example, observed that women who were extraordinary in self-esteem made good use of social care when confronted with stress, whereas those who lacked selfesteem inferred social support as an indication of personal inadequacy and, consequently, misused support.

3. Following stressful situations, persons have an increasingly depleted resource pool to struggle further stress. This depletion impairs persons’ capability of coping with furthers tress, thus ensuing in a loss spiral. This process view of resource investment wants to focus on how the interplay between resources and situational demands changes over time as stressor sequences unfold. In accumulation, this principle shows that it is significant to examine not only the effect of resources on conclusion, but also of outcome on resources.

Materials and Methods

Rationale of study

This area of research is selected because it is helpful to understand the main beliefs regarding parental expectations about their children performance at school involving the stresses they face and cope up with, throughout their academic lives. Knowing about parental expectations and its relationship with academic performance gives us a concerned way for the students to perform better in their academic career.

Parental expectations manipulate child outcome through various pathways i.e., parental expectations are most likely to influence their children when parent child relationships are characterized by closeness and affection. These expectations have an effect on the amount of parent child communication about school. Many parents have dreams and hopes for their child before he or she is even born, but their dreams can turn into expectations that are too high and unachievable and may lead to an overemphasis on excellence or perfection. The child may feel incapable or like a failure if he is unable to live up to these expectations or he may give up easily and not make an effort to excel.

Some parents just focus on their child’s academic life and don’t let their children to perform in extracurricular activities like sports, watching TV, games, being social with friends etc. This in turn can impact the whole life of their child i.e., they may feel shy to discuss important things with their parents, being less socialized with others, feeling disapproval by their parents if their performance at school is worsened, their diet and health may also be effected, they may feel overburdened and stressed to fulfil their parents expectations and can have negative emotions towards their parents.

This research will also help to eliminate different academic stressors of their children and contribute towards positive attitude of the parental expectations towards their children i.e. the parents will focus on child individual intellectual abilities and interests, they will not over burden their child for grades, they will reward and encourage their children on their educational accomplishments etc.

It is helpful to understand the main beliefs that have influenced our lives. No one can change the past, it’s true. But we can learn from our past and can make our future better. Knowing more about Parental expectations and its relation with academic performance gives us a concerned way to understand and perform better regarding our academic carrier.

Parents’ expectations manipulate child outcomes through various pathways. Parental expectations are more likely to influence their children when parent-child relationships are characterized by closeness and affection. Parental expectations have an effect on the amount of parent-child communication about school. Many parents have dreams and hopes for their child before he or she is even born, but these dreams can turn into expectations that are too high and unachievable and may lead to an overemphasis on excellence or perfection. The child may feel incapable or like a failure if he is unable to live up to these expectations or he may give up easily and not even make an effort to excel.

Significance of the study

The purpose of conducting this research is to examine the influences of parental expectations on children’s academic achievements with a theoretical framework from the past literature.

Objective

The main objective of this study is to find out the relationship between parental expectations and perceived academic stress among male and female students.

Hypothesis

To assess the impact of parental expectations on academic achievement of students following hypotheses are made.

• There is a positive correlation between parental expectations and academic achievements among male and female students.

• There is a negative relationship between parental expectations and academic achievement among female students.

• Definition of the Variables

Parental expectations

The term “parental expectations” has been defined in various ways in the literature; most researchers characterize parental expectations as realistic beliefs or judgments that parents have about their children’s future achievement as reflected in course grades, highest level of schooling attained, or college attendance [2,7].

Academic achievements or (academic) performance is the outcome of education-the extent to which a student, teacher or institution has achieved their educational goal.

Instruments

Perception of parent expectation inventory scale by Kaiser was used to assess the parental expectations.

Sample

A total sample of 100 will be selected randomly from different departments of Foundation University Rawalpindi campus.

Procedure

The selected scales were administered to the actual sample of students for which the present study was designed. The subjects were approached individually and their consent was taken for participation in the study. Brief instructions about the questionnaires are given on the first page. It was made clear to them that all the information will be kept confidential and would be utilized only for research purposes. They were requested to complete the questionnaires.

Data analysis

After completion of the data collection, from 100 university students the gathered data is analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences 16 version (SPSS). Keeping in view the objectives of the study various statistical analyses were used such as Pearson correlation to find out the relationship among study variables, t-test to find out the gender differences.

Results

The current study was aimed to find out the relationship between perceived parental expectations and academic achievements. Pearson correlation was used to find out the relationship and t-test to find out the gender differences, which indicates the following results (Tables 1-3).

Demographic variables F %
Gender
Male 100 50
Female 100 50

Table 1: Frequency and percentage of participants (N=100). It shows frequency and percentage of all demographics used in the present study.

Scale M  SD  a 1 2
Parental expectations 1.75  1.123  0.899 - 0.055
Academic Achievement 78.46  12.94 - - -

Table 2: Descriptive, Cranach’s alpha reliabilities and Pearson correlation among study variables. It shows the descriptive statistics, and alpha reliabilities and Pearson correlation among study variable (Note: Academic achievement was measured through the percentages of score in last class).

  Males Females   95% CI Cohen’s d
(n=50) (n=50)
 Variables M SD M SD t (98)  P UL LL
Parental Expectations 1.54 0.862 1.96 1.309 1.895 0.061 0.86 -0.02 0.378
Academic Achievement 74.78 10.14 82.14 14.42 2.95 0.004 12.3 2.41 0.59

Table 3: Mean, standard deviation and t-values for male and female students on study variables (N=200). It yields the results of t-test that was computed to explore the gender effect on study variables. Also describes the negative relationship between parental expectations and academic achievements among female students.

Discussion

The present study examined the relationship between parental expectations and academic achievements among students and to investigate the impact of parental expectations on academic performance. In order to test the relational hypotheses it was found essential to ensure the psychometric soundness of instrument.

Pearson product moment correlation coefficients found that there is no correlation between perceived parental expectation and academic achievements. Relationship between these variables was not significant and in the desired direction (Table 2) which paved the support for further hypotheses testing. The foremost objective of the study was to find out the relationship of parental expectations among university students. In order to achieve this objective two hypotheses were formulated. Results of t-test accounted for parental expectations as significant negative predictor of low academic performance which supported our hypotheses 2.

There are also previous researches which support present finding, for example, revealed “that men and women differ in their perceptions and reactions to stress” whereas it was found differences between male and female students to be significant when it came to the time pressure dimension of stress. Relatively, it was found that “female students have different stress compared to the male students. This may be because female students tend to be more emotional and sensitive toward what is happening in their surrounding”.

Conversely, Watson found no significant difference in the perceived stress levels and coping styles between male and female junior and senior students of Nursing and Social Work programs. However roles are internalized and “for social specifications of behaviours to be effective, individuals must internalize them. At a very young age, girls understand that they are supposed to be nice, put others’ needs ahead of their own, and be nurturing, whereas boys understand that they are supposed to take command and assert themselves”. These claims explain why the female were more affected by expectations that served as sources of academic stress because as emphasized, they were supposed to put others’ needs ahead of their own and responding to perceived expectations of others could be one of them.

Also, a social constructionist approach view gender acquisition as a self-fulfilling prophecy. “Because people think boys and girls are supposed to be different, they treat them differently and give them different opportunities for development. This differential treatment promotes certain behaviours and self-images that recreate the preconceived cultural stereotypes about gender”. Furthermore, “the process repeats itself over and over in an unending spiral across the generations, so that although gender stereotypes are being constantly re-created and modified, they seem natural and impervious to change”.

Conclusion

This study focused on expectations as sources of academic stress only and it did not investigate on the correlation between academic stress and well-being or even success in getting a degree. However, as suggested by Seaward, stress refers to the absence of inner peace and peace is associated with well-being. Following this perspective, it can be assumed that stress can affect a person’s well-being. Academic stress can decrease life satisfaction and happiness which is called subjective components of quality of life and therefore affects the lives of university freshmen and their bid in getting a degree.

Limitations

• The research was limited to representative sample of 100 individuals but it was taken from only one division which was not sufficient to be generalized to the population.

• In the present study cultural background number of siblings family back ground parents’ education was not controlled.

• Furthermore, certain demographic variables like birth order, socio economic status, and birth order have not been controlled in the present study which might have been relevant to the constructs of the present study.

Recommendations

1. In future research, to obtain more externally valid results can be replicated on a large and diverse sample of the participants in different School and colleges.

2. The sampling technique in the present was convenience sampling that was not fully representative of the population; therefore a method of probability sampling should be used.

Finally, demographic variables such as socio economic status, birth order, family system, and cultural background, number of siblings, parents’ education, school and life style of participants should also be explored in relation to test anxiety among adolescents and academic performance.

Limitations of the Study

The present study has certain limitations with respect to such issues as sampling, measurement and instruments that can influence the generalization of the results.

1. The research was limited to representative sample of 100 individuals but it was taken from only one division which was not sufficient to be generalized to the population.

2. In the present study cultural background number of siblings family back ground parents’ education was not controlled.

3. Furthermore, certain demographic variables like birth order, socio economic status, and birth order have not been controlled in the present study which might have been relevant to the constructs of the present study.

Implications

These research findings will benefit teachers and student counsellors in the way for the development of intervention programs to reduce the perceived parental expectation stress which will then lead them to achieve high academic performance. Moreover, present findings may also be the interest of parents in order to have an insight in problems related to the studies of their children.

References

Author Info

Andleeb Haider*
 
Department of Psychology, University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan
 

Citation: Haider A (2022) Parental Expectations & Effect of Perceived Academic Stress on Students Performance. J Psychol Psychother. 12:426.

Received: 08-Mar-2022, Manuscript No. JPPT-22-16574; Editor assigned: 10-Mar-2022, Pre QC No. JPPT-22-16574 (PQ); Reviewed: 24-Mar-2022, QC No. JPPT-22-16574; Revised: 31-Mar-2022, Manuscript No. JPPT-22-16574 (R); Published: 07-Apr-2022, DOI: 10.35248/2161-0487-22.12.426

Copyright: © 2022 Haider A. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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