Importance of Koebner Phenomenon in Inflammatory Alopecia
Hair Therapy & Transplantation

Hair Therapy & Transplantation
Open Access

ISSN: 2167-0951

Mini Review - (2021)Volume 11, Issue 5

Importance of Koebner Phenomenon in Inflammatory Alopecia

Wirach Asawanonda, Maturada Suwanwalaikorn* and Sukamas Kongkabpan
*Correspondence: Maturada Suwanwalaikorn, Division of Dermatology, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand, Email:

Author info »


Autografts of autologous hair is currently a set up training for the therapy of individuals experiencing male and female Androgenetic Alopecia with a deficient reaction to clinical treatments or without any aspiration of seeking any treatment at all. This is to invigorate the consideration of experts who, during their expert movement, have without a doubt seen the presence of patients with deserted outcomes or in any event, deteriorating of their clinical circumstance after careful treatment. This would occur in 5% or significantly a greater amount of the cases continued in a long development, as indicated by a short casual review we led among notable Italian associates specialists in hair transplantion. Without a doubt these information ought to be certainly developed. One more field of use of this training is addressed by types of scarring post-horrible or post-provocative alopecia, yet just where the fundamental illness is settled-as indicated by legitimate conclusions-for not less than 2-3 years.


Autografts; Androgenetic alopecia; Hair transplantion; Koebner phenomenon; Alopecia areata


Nonetheless of these safety measures, the perception sometimes of reactivation of the sickness after careful extraction or autografts, encourages us to be very wary in the therapy of patients with Discoid Lupus Erythematosus (DLE), Lichen Plano Pilaris (LPP) and Pseudopelade of Brocq (PP). We as of late recommended that this reactivation of the incendiary cycle could be ascribed to a genuine Koebner Phenomenon (KP) in which "Koebnerization" is indistinguishable from pathogenesis, treatment and visualization of the first illness. In 1872 Heinrich Koebner portrayed a peculiarity he had seen which comprised of the accompanying actual injury incited the development of a trait of psoriatic injuries in a patient impacted by psoriasis. From that point forward the expression "Koebner Phenomenon" or "responsive isomorphism" has been used by the clinicians in different sicknesses which similarly present the development of sores of the basic illness after injury in the dynamic types of the infections, where, a subclinical aggravation could be available likewise in ordinary seeming cutis. We flagged Koebnerization in instances of LPP, DLE and furthermore Alopecia Areata (AA) of the scalp [1]. We noticed the old style reactivation of DLE after careful exeresis of the uncovered fix additionally we noticed that the pathology was reactivated and boundless 3 weeks after a solitary meeting of cryotherapy. This additionally happened after autologous hair joining (micrografts), a month after relocate. In AA patches of alopecia might show up after clear injury like being hit, consumes, freezing, medical procedure, yet additionally after delayed microtrauma like in the cases we saw because of grinding by apparel, glasses and clasps.


As known, lichen ruber planus (LRP) is infrequently found on the scalp, yet ordinarily presents the KP. Subsequently LPP appears to have comparable qualities to LRP. Traditionally, the KP includes the epidermis, while in these cases harm was restricted to the adnexial members. The pathogenesis of KP isn't completely known. Scientists Toruniowa and Jablonska thought about the pole cell (MC) as the component that triggers the KP in psoriasis. Truth be told, in the underlying periods of unconstrained and koebnerized AA and LPP there was an apparent exceptional degranulation of pole cells, in any event, when the mononuclear penetrate was scarse. The MC could start the injuries based on its high affectability to changes in temperature, convergence of the electrolytes, varieties of tension and even modifications of electromagnetic fields, other than the notable immunological enactment by means of IgE, immunocomplexes, cytokines, and neuromediators like substance P and Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone CRH. The distinguishing proof of this peculiarity might clarify why a few medicines are inefficacious or even may more terrible the clinical picture whenever utilized in the dynamic periods of these hair illnesses [2-3].

An incessant issue in Hair transplantation is the nonacknowledgment of certain types of incendiary alopecia, for example, ‶Front facing Fibrosing Alopecia (FFA)″ or Fibrosing Alopecia in a Pattern Distribution (FAPD) (clinical less fiery variations of LPP), handily mistook for the exemplary Androgenetic Alopecia (AGA) thus exasperated by careful medicines by the KP for a similar explanation depicted above. Another choice that leads solely to a disappointment intercession is the absence of acknowledgment of explicit clinical parts of AA: "Androgenetic-like AA", "AA incognita", and a few types of Ophyiasis. This large number of structures can some of the time escape even the analysis of an expert dermatologist, who has regularly to utilize imaging methods, for example, dermoscopy or histopathology to affirm the determination. Tragically, as recently expressed, something similar and evident exemplary AGA here and there can have disillusioning outcomes after an appropriate careful treatment [4]. These discoveries could be clarified based on a Koebnerlike Phenomenon for the presence of a subclinical perifollicular microinflammation, comprising of a lynphomononuclear invade generally confined around the Isthmus of the hair follicle, with expansion in number and indications of pole cell enactment in with regards to half of these subjects-male and female. This follicular miniature irritation would accept a prognostic importance as, for instance, a lower restorative reaction to minoxidil has been checked in subjects with male example alopecia. Vital, without Biopsy, location of peripilar signs (despondency) through an ordinary Dermoscopy might be adequate to recognize these cases [5].

In certain patients the fiery penetrate has a lichenoid appearance and it is related with fibrosis and decay of follicular constructions, and in this manner expect a continuum between androgenetic structures and some lichenoid shapes previously referenced, where androgens could in any case assume a part, given the overall adequacy of the 5α-reductase inhibitorsessentially in the adjustment of the illness. Strangely, it was seen that transplantation of hair follicles from male and female human AGA on naked mice (immunologically clumsy) exhibited a recuperation of development limit equivalent or even better than that of ordinary terminal hair; a potential clarification of this peculiarity could be the goal of perifollicular miniature irritation and we thusly recommend to look all the more carefully to incendiary factors in setting off and upkeep of AGA. Specifically a significant job could be played by the fibrogenic cytokine TGFβ, demonstrated fit under androgenic incitement to initiate catagen in helpless follicles and famously basic component in recuperating physiological and neurotic cycles [6].


We finish up in this manner that a cautious dermatological assessment of these patients, with conceivable assistance of imaging examines and any attendant pharmacological medicines might be useful for lessening the danger of disappointment or helpless corrective aftereffects of careful treatment of alopecia, additionally through keeping away from the chance of a KP. In addition, an improvement of AGA is seen after chemotherapy and is maybe connected with similar mitigating impact of some anticancer medications.


Author Info

Wirach Asawanonda, Maturada Suwanwalaikorn* and Sukamas Kongkabpan
Division of Dermatology, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand

Citation: Asawanonda W, Suwanwalaikorn M, Kongkabpan S (2021) Importance of Koebner Phenomenon in Inflammatory Alopecia. Hair Ther Transplant. 11:171.

Received: 05-Nov-2021 Published: 26-Nov-2021, DOI: 10.35248/2167-0951.21.11.171

Copyright: © 2021 Asawanonda W, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.