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Hypersomnia Syndrome: Classification, Causes and its Diagnostic Tools
Journal of Sleep Disorders & Therapy

Journal of Sleep Disorders & Therapy
Open Access

ISSN: 2167-0277

+44 20 3868 9735

Opinion Article - (2022)Volume 11, Issue 2

Hypersomnia Syndrome: Classification, Causes and its Diagnostic Tools

Muhammad Manda*
 
*Correspondence: Dr. Muhammad Manda, Department of Psychiatry, Ibn Sina Medical College, Kallyanpur, Bangladesh, Email:

Author info »

Description

Excessive sleep and drowsiness during the day is a complaint that it can be a cause unrelated to the underlying medical condition. Examples include lack of sleep, jet lag, extreme exercise, heavy diets, pregnancy, alcohol, and marijuana use. A systematic tool for studying sleep and arousal that affect a daily life. Only in the last three decades, modern sleep medicine has emphasized the health and economic implications of falling asleep at all times. Hypersomnia syndrome is increasing in 15% to 30% of people with sleep problems.

Symptoms

Symptoms of Hypersomnia syndrome are as follows:

• Continuous and repetitive episodes of extreme drowsiness during the day.

• Longer than average (more than 10 hours), but feel still very sleepy during the day and struggling to get up during the day.

• Difficulty waking up in the morning (“sleep addiction”) or after an afternoon nap can be confusing and controversial.

• Nap does not improve arousal. They are neither refreshing nor restorative.

• Anxiety, irritability.

• Energy loss.

• Restlessness.

• Slow thinking, slow speech, lack of concentration/ concentration, memory problems.

• Headache.

• Decreased appetite.

• Hallucinations.

Classification of hypersomnia syndrome

Narcolepsy, idiopathic hypersomnia, recurrent hypersomnia, sleep deprivation syndrome, drug and toxin-dependent sleepiness, hypersomnia associated with mental disorders, hypersomnia associated with neuropathy, Post-traumatic hypersomnia, infection and hypersomnia, metabolism-related hypersomnia or endocrine disorders, respiratory disorders, sleep apnea syndrome, periodic limb movements during sleep.

Causes of hypersomnia

Hypersomnia due to illness: Diseases and conditions that can cause hypersomnia include epilepsy, hypothyroidism, encephalitis, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, obesity, obstructive sleep aspiration, late sleep syndrome, multiple Seasonal depression, including system atrophy, myotonic dystrophy and other hereditary disorders, mood disorders (including depression and bipolar disorders). Hypersomnia can also result from head injuries, tumors, and diseases of the central nervous system. Hypersomnia caused by medicines and alcohol. Sedatives (including benzodiazepines, barbiturates, melatonin, hypnotics), antihypertensives, antiepileptic drugs, antiparkinson drugs, skeletal muscle relaxants, antipsychotics, achens, cannabis, alcohol are hypersomnia may cause. Hypersomnia due to lack of adequate sleep (sleep deprivation syndrome). Not sleeping can lead to hypersomnia and have the opportunity to sleep for 7-9 hours (for adults). May not be practicing good sleep habits (such as avoiding exercise or caffeine within a few hours before bedtime) to get a good night's sleep.

Diagnostic tool

Polysomnography: This overnight sleep study test measures brain waves, breathing patterns, heart rhythm, and muscle movement during the sleep phase. The test is conducted in a hospital, sleep research center, or other designated location under the direct supervision of a trained sleep specialist. This test helps diagnose disorders that may cause drowsiness.

Multisleep latency test: This daytime sleep test measures a person's tendency to fall asleep during five 20-minute nap attempts scheduled at 2-hour intervals. This test records brain activity, such as the number of naps in REM sleep.

Sleep questionnaire: Asked to fill out one or more sleep questionnaires to assess drowsiness. A popular sleep survey is Epworth sleepiness scale and Stanford sleepiness scale.

Wakefullness enhancers include Modafinil (Provigil), Armodafinil (Nuvigil), Pitrisanto (Wakix), and solriamfetol (Sunosi). One of these medicines is usually tried first.

Psychostimulants include amphetamine, methylphenidate (Ritalin, Daytrana, Methylin, Concert), or dextroamphetamine (Procentra, Dextroamphetamine®, Zenzedi). These drugs are more likely to be abused and have side effects than primary drugs. Other drug options in case other drugs fail, such as sodium oxybate (Xyrem or Xywav), flumazenil (Romazicon), and clarithromycin (Biaxin).

Author Info

Muhammad Manda*
 
Department of Psychiatry, Ibn Sina Medical College, Kallyanpur, Bangladesh
 

Citation: Mandal M (2022) Hypersomnia Syndrome: Classification, Causes and its Diagnostic Tools. J Sleep Disord Ther. 11: 365.

Received: 02-Mar-2022, Manuscript No. JSDT-22-17101; Editor assigned: 04-Mar-2022, Pre QC No. JSDT-22-17101 (PQ); Reviewed: 18-Mar-2022, QC No. JSDT-22-17101; Revised: 23-Mar-2022, Manuscript No. JSDT-22-17101 (R); Published: 30-Mar-2022 , DOI: 10.35248/2167-0277.22.11.365

Copyright: © 2022 Mandal M. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.