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HIV Vaccine: Recent Developments, Present Challenges, and Future Prospects
HIV: Current Research

HIV: Current Research
Open Access

ISSN: 2572-0805

Short Communication - (2022)Volume 7, Issue 2

HIV Vaccine: Recent Developments, Present Challenges, and Future Prospects

Imran Fazal Ellahi*
 
*Correspondence: Imran Fazal Ellahi, Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Allama Iqbal Open University, Ashfaq Ahmed Rd, H-8/2 H 8/2 H-8, Islamabad, Islamabad Capital Territory 44000, Pakistan, Email:

Author info »

Description

Worldwide, HIV/AIDS is one of the primary causes of mortality and morbidity. An HIV vaccine would be the best preventative and control measure, notwithstanding effective interventions and treatment regimens. Since the discovery of HIV/AIDS, careful work has gone into developing vaccines. This paper's specific goal is to examine recent vaccine effectiveness trials, analyze related developments, present problems, and potential future directions. Numerous scientific methods have become increasingly popular over time, including the induction of neutralizing antibodies, the production of CD8 T cells, and current combination methods [1].

According to a scientific theory, the stimulation of the proper somatic hyper-mutation sequences could result in the production of broadly reactive neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) that are effective at neutralizing and eradicating viruses. Numerous host and viral variables have been identified to influence these processes, according to studies. Similar future prospects exist for DNA vaccines that aim to activate certain CD8 T cell immune responses. Finally, future research, in the future should concentrate on the ongoing struggle between host immune responses and increasingly evasive viral elements for vaccination effectiveness [2].

Since the identification of the first cases of the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and the subsequent identification of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), HIV/AIDS has grown to be a major global cause of mortality and morbidity. According to estimates, 35 million people worldwide are HIV positive.

Approximately 78 million people have contracted the disease since it was first discovered and described, and 39 million have passed away from AIDS-related illnesses. The prevalence of this illness has, however, decreased by 38%. Compared to 3.4 million, about 2.1 million people have contracted HIV for the first time. Since the peak, AIDS-related mortality has decreased by 35%. AIDS-related illnesses claimed the lives of 1.5 million people rather than 2.4 million [3].

Only 37% of all infected cases worldwide were being treated with antiretroviral medications, which affected roughly 12.9 million people. Global projections indicate that $24 billion would be spent on treating HIV/AIDS and related diseases, up from $19.1 billion. Because more than half of all expenses go to impoverished countries with lower levels of productivity and more years life lost due to HIV. HIV, this places a significant burden on both developed and developing economies. Researchers have always been fervent about the HIV vaccine as the most effective HIV prevention and control approach, despite the fact that there are a variety of efficient prevention measures and treatment strategies like pre-exposure prophylaxis and antiretroviral therapy. Despite these efforts, few studies have yielded benificial results. This paper's specific goal is to examine recent HIV vaccine efficacy trials and related developments, as well as to discuss the initiative's existing difficulties and potential future directions. In order to describe recent developments in HIV vaccine research, we used a narrative review methodology [4].

By combining the terms "HIV", "AIDS", "vaccine", "clinical trials", "broadly neutralizing antibodies", "CD8 T cells", "CD4 T cells", "antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity", and "antibodydependent cell-mediated viral inhibition," we searched the electronic databases PubMed, EMBASE, Ovid, and Google Scholar for articles published between (30 years) [5].

There have been ongoing efforts to develop vaccinations against the disease ever before HIV was initially recognized as the cause of AIDS. There will be study on vaccines and preparation for pilot testing, according to US Secretary of Health and Human Services Margaret Heckler. Many notable academics, however, rejected this initial optimism for not being consistent with what was known about the pathophysiology and mechanism of the virus itself. Because there is a chance that proviral DNA will become permanently incorporated within host chromosomes, conventional methods that include employing live attenuated or entire inactivated viruses were deemed dangerous. It took until the middle of the 1980s, when recombinant DNA technologies were becoming accessible for research purposes, for advancements in vaccine creation [6].

Conclusion

To assess the efficacy of treatments in large-scale studies, numerous new immunological and virological markers, including proviral DNA levels in reservoir cells, measurements of functional T and B cell subsets, markers of biochemical and cellular immune response, viral transmission rates, and viral neutralization rates, should be used in the future. Due to the fast proposal and rejection of newer paradigms as well as the high cost and complexity of the study on these paradigms, this presents a particularly difficult problem for established researchers and funding organizations. We are getting closer to an effective vaccine the more time and money we put into extensive research. The governments of various countries should work together to make these investments, as doing so will help save millions of lives in the long run, as well as the money needed to manage and treating AIDS and HIV. Only then would the possibility of HIV/AIDS eradication in the future become a reality, even in the world's poorest countries.

References

Author Info

Imran Fazal Ellahi*
 
Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Allama Iqbal Open University, Ashfaq Ahmed Rd, H-8/2 H 8/2 H-8, Islamabad, Islamabad Capital Territory 44000, Pakistan
 

Citation: Ellahi IF (2022) HIV Vaccine: Recent Developments, Present Challenges, and Future Prospects. J HIV Curr Res. 7.209.

Received: 16-May-2022, Manuscript No. HICR-22-18344; Editor assigned: 19-May-2022, Pre QC No. HICR-22-18344(PQ); Reviewed: 27-May-2022, QC No. HICR-22-18344; Revised: 13-Jun-2022, Manuscript No. HICR-22-18344(R); Published: 21-Jun-2022 , DOI: 10.35248/2572-0805.22.7.209

Copyright: © 2022 2022 Ellahi IF. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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