GET THE APP

Extending Psychoanalysis with Theories on Sleep Functions
Journal of Sleep Disorders & Therapy

Journal of Sleep Disorders & Therapy
Open Access

ISSN: 2167-0277

+44 20 3868 9735

Opinion Article - (2015) Volume 4, Issue 6

Extending Psychoanalysis with Theories on Sleep Functions

Cai ZJ*
No. 129, Building 6, Room 404, North Dongwu Road, Suzhou City, Jiangsu Province, 215128, PR China
*Corresponding Author: Cai ZJ, No. 129, Building 6, Room 404, North Dongwu Road, Suzhou City, Jiangsu Province, 215128, PR China, Tel: 8651265299403 Email:

Abstract

Cai’s sleep theories suggested the slow-wave sleep (SWS) to regulate the emotional balance disrupted by emotional memories randomly accumulated during waking, while the rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep in opposite, which would help revise and extend the psychoanalysis in both theory and therapy.

Keywords: Psychoanalysis, Sleep, Emotion, Memory, Noradrenaline, Serotonin

Opinion

Psychoanalysis of Freudianism has been a traditional theory on and successful therapy to many psychotic diseases. Matching psychoanalysis to pertaining processes in neuroscience would help revise the contents and extend the potential of psychoanalysis as both theory and therapy.

Cai’s theoretical analysis on sleep functions pertains to psychoanalysis more than other sleep theories. Through integrative review of various studies, Cai demonstrated that slow-wave sleep (SWS) played the function in regulation of emotional balance disrupted by emotional memories randomly accumulated during waking [1-3], while the rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep played the opposite role, shifting the emotional balance toward depression with emotional memories [1-3].

In Cai’s theoretical analysis on sleep functions, there reviewed the observations and experiments in many aspects [1-3]. For the emotional regulation of SWS, there was integratively reviewed [1-3] as: (1) SWS was frequently related with depression, while deprivation of SWS produced depression, but increase in SWS duration ameliorated depression [1-3]. (2) Hippocampal but not neocortical lesions caused impairment of SWS, while the neuronal activity in SWS increased in hippocampus but not in neocortex [1-3]. For the REM sleep, Cai and others reviewed it as tending to disrupt the emotional balance toward depression [1-5], with the REM sleep deprivation cited as therapeutic against depression [1-3].

For the coincident processing and reorganization of memories in sleep [1-3], it has been shown that SWS may favor LTD [6,7], whereas emotional memories are processed during REM sleep, as recently reviewed with many experiments [3], consistent with Freudianism.

In addition, Cai’s theoretical analysis even revealed a new mechanism manifesting Freudian differentiation of conscious and subconscious conflict of memory and emotion in waking and sleep respectively. During waking, the memory traces were inhibited temporarily by the ascending noradrenergic and serotonergic systems [1-3], with the vigilant discharge of these systems regulated by limbicreticular coupling [1,2,8]. Whereas during sleep, the noradrenergic and serotonergic systems decreased and even ceased in discharge, releasing the suppressed memory traces [1-3], and turning the conscious conflict of memory and emotion into subconscious conflict of them.

Psychoanalysis of Freudianism would necessarily be consolidated and revised according to these theories of sleep functions. (1) The function of REM sleep matches to Freudianism that learned memories conflicted against disinhibited drives during dream sleep, consolidating the psychoanalysis of Freudianism. (2) The function of SWS in contrary to that of REM sleep supplements the neglect of Freudianism, and would result to scientifically revise and extend psychoanalysis, significantly important to further advancement of psychoanalytic theory and therapy in future. (3) Cai’s new explanation on Freudian differentiation of conscious and subconscious conflict of memory and emotion as resulting from differentiation of the noradrenergic and serotonergic activities in waking and sleep may benefit to improvement of hypnotic treatment and therapy.

Conflict of Interest

The author declares no conflict of interest nor financial support for this work.

References

  1. Cai ZJ (1991) The functions of sleep: further analysis. See comment in PubMed Commons below Physiol Behav 50: 53-60.
  2. Cai ZJ1 (1995) An integrative analysis to sleep functions. See comment in PubMed Commons below Behav Brain Res 69: 187-194.
  3. Cai ZJ1 (2015) A new function of rapid eye movement sleep: improvement of muscular efficiency. See comment in PubMed Commons below Physiol Behav 144: 110-115.
  4. Palagini L1, Baglioni C, Ciapparelli A, Gemignani A, Riemann D (2013) REM sleep dysregulation in depression: state of the art. See comment in PubMed Commons below Sleep Med Rev 17: 377-390.
  5. Goldstein AN1, Walker MP (2014) The role of sleep in emotional brain function. See comment in PubMed Commons below Annu Rev Clin Psychol 10: 679-708.
  6. Yang Z1, Zhang W, Wang M, Ruan D, Chen J (2012) Effects of daytime, night and sleep pressure on long-term depression in the hippocampus in vivo. See comment in PubMed Commons below Neurosci Lett 511: 106-109.
  7. Yang Z1, Zhang W, Wang M, Ruan D, Chen J (2012) Effect of low intensity low-frequency stimuli on long-term depression in the rat hippocampus area CA1 in vivo. See comment in PubMed Commons below Neurosci Lett 523: 24-29.
  8. Cai ZJ (1990) The neural mechanism of declarative memory consolidation and retrieval: a hypothesis. See comment in PubMed Commons below Neurosci Biobehav Rev 14: 295-304.
Citation: Cai ZJ (2015) Extending Psychoanalysis with Theories on Sleep Functions. J Sleep Disord Ther 4:217.

Copyright: © 2015 Cai ZJ. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.