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Ethnobotanical Study of Useful Climbers Creepers & Twiners of Baba Ghulam Shah Badshah University campus and Adjoining Areas of District Rajouri (J&K)
Medicinal & Aromatic Plants

Medicinal & Aromatic Plants
Open Access

ISSN: 2167-0412

Research Article - (2019)Volume 8, Issue 6

Ethnobotanical Study of Useful Climbers Creepers & Twiners of Baba Ghulam Shah Badshah University campus and Adjoining Areas of District Rajouri (J&K)

Tahir Mahmood*
 
*Correspondence: Tahir Mahmood, Extension Scientist, Centre for Biodiversity Studies, Baba Ghulam Shah Badshah University, Rajouri, India, Tel: 9906384581, Email:

Author info »

Abstract

The present study deals with climbers creepers and twiners of Baba Ghulam Shah Badshah University, and adjoining areas of district Rajouri. Ethnomedicinal plants are necessary for treatment of various diseases and production of various medicines. The Climbers, Creepers and twiner are extensively used as medicine. The local people of district Rajouri use 43 climbers of the vascular plants for medicine, vegetable and fodder. As tradition culture is disappearing the knowledge about the plants wealth is going to lost. The information on Climbers, Creepers and twiner Species is obtained while studying the flora of (J&K) Himalaya and medicinal plants of Pirajapati Prohit. For each plant its family, botanical name, vernacular name, common name, Local name, English name, flowering Period is given. As per the climatic condition the plants are showing their presence in different sites. Some plants species which are climber creepers and twiner in their tendency are referred as climber creepers and twiner. A climbing plant includes tendrils and twiner having adventitious roots on nodular part of the stem helpful for their climber creepers and twiner on ant substratum. A total of 43 climbers’ creepers and twiner species belonging to 36 families were recorded for the medicinal, vegetable and fodder. Among all the families Convolvulaceae were found to be most abundant having 6 species followed by Cucurbitaceae and Dioscoreaceae.

Keywords

Ethnobotanical; Climbers; Creepers & Twiner

Introduction

Ethnomedicinal plants are necessary for treatment of various diseases and production of various medicines. The Climbers, Creepers and twiner are extensively used as medicine. The local people of district Rajouri use 43 climbers of the vascular plants for medicine; vegetable and fodder. Plants are remarkable source of valuable substances for human beings. These are showing variation in their habitat as well as their habit. As per climatic condition, the plants are showing their presence in different sites. Plants are essential for healthier life because they provide us medicines, which are both effective and safe, without any side effect. Plants play a vital role in our lives more than animals mainly due to their extraordinary array of diverse class of biochemical’s with a variety of biological activities [1,2] ethnobotanical information on medicinal plants and their uses by indigenous cultures is useful not only in the conservation of traditional cultures and biodiversity, but also for community health care and drug development. This information is utilized as a guide for drug development. This information is utilized as a guide for drug development under the premise that a plant which has been used by autochthonic people over a long Period of time may have an allopathic application [3]. Some important studies on diversity of climber’s creepers and twiner in different part of India by Gentry, Ghosh and Mukherjee [4], Bandopadhya and Mukherjee [5], and, Jangid and Sharma [6] suggest that the climber creepers and twiner are forming man components of ecosystem. The conservation of important and endangered medicinal plants, their conservation and the Ethnomedicinal uses, including climbers is very essential to establish their appropriate utilization [7-9]. The Rajouri however are floristically the least surveyed district in the Jammu province, with scanty and scattered information available on their flora [10-13].

The aim of the current research is to highlight the key of climbers creepers and twiners of BGSB University campus and adjoining areas of district Rajouri Jammu and Kashmir India.

The ethnobotanical study on useful climber creepers and twiner of district, Rajouri state Jammu & Kashmir India was carried out by Mahmood [14] and 43 species of 33 genera belonging to 36 families were found useful in everyday life of local denizens as medicinal, fodder/forage, shelter, and in making agricultural tools. Most of the shrubs were noticed having more than one ethnomedicinal uses.

Material and Methods

Jammu & Kashmir, India is a very rich center of biodiversity with important hot sports, such as rivers, lakes, streams, spring, steep mountain slopes and road, waste lands, cultivated fields etc. The present study was accomplished to document of the Ethnomedicinal data on the useful climbers creepers & twiner of Distt Rajouri, state Jammu and Kashmir India, it is located at southern part of of Jammu division in the foot hill of Pir Panjal range between 32°- 58′ and 33°-35′ latitude and 74°-81′ longitude at an elevation range of 370-6000 msl, It is bounded on the eastern side by district Reasi Western side by Pok, Northern side by District Poonch it is about 915,m above the sea level . Covering an area of 2630 sq.km, and as population of 6, 19,266 per 2011 census [15].

The present communication pertains to climbers creepers and twiner were collected from Baba Ghulam Shah Badshah university Rajouri and adjoining area of district Rajouri state Jammu and Kashmir India, and were identified with the help of local flora of Udhampur Ajai Swami and B. K. Gupta, Singh and Kirn: Kirn: Vir Jee et al., Dar et al., Malik et al. General information about the climbers creepers and twiner was collected from the local peoples. About 70 local peoples respondents including both male and female was interviewed. The question about the indigenous uses of climber creepers and twiner plant species were asked in Urdu, Gojjri & Phari. Plants specimen collected from the area were dried, pressed and mounted on herbarium sheets. Correct identified herbarium data were deposited in Centre of Biodiversity Studies, BGSBU Rajouri for future reference [16].

Results

During the present probe based on ethnobotanical useful climbers creepers & twiner, of Baba Ghulam Shah Badshah University, campus and adjoining areas of district Rajouri State Jammu and Kashmir India. The present papers first time provides inventory of 43 species of vascular plants belong to 36 families were collected by the author from various areas in the Rajouri district and take the interviewed for their local uses peculiarly in medicines. (Author contacted the tribal people & discussed with him in local languages (Gojjri) and collected the information of medicinal plants. The Present paper is the result of detailed field studies made during the floristic surveys conduct the Rajouri Poonch from 1987-1988-1993 & from 2008-2010 and again from the data collected for various uses of these species is presented in Table 1 and Figures 1-43.

Botanical name Family Common name Local name Folk Medicinal Uses
Asparagus racemosus Willd. Asparagaceae Wild asparagus Santa war Sataular The root is bitter sweet emollient, cooling, nervine, tonic, treatment of constipation, stomach ache, and tonic. Juice of chopped roots is given to relive liver problem and weakness.
Cardiospermum halicacabum L. Sapindaceae Ballon vine/Heart pea Qulqul Stem and leaves are used as vegetable. Dried leaves crushed to make tea used for itching of skin. Fresh crushed leaves used as a poultice on swelling. Leaves, seeds and root are used for rheumatism, stiffness of joints and Snakebite. Seeds are useful for nervous disorders.
Cissampelos pareira L. Menispermaceae Velvet leaf, Abuta But bel Used locally in case of unhealthy sores & used sinuses. It is frequently prescribed in the later stages of the bowel complaints, in conjunction with aromatic it is reported by antilithic (Dymock).
Clematis buchananiana D C Ranunculaceae Lemon clematis/white climber Uses as fodder
Convolvulus arvensis L. Convolvulaceae Field bindweed, Strain khuri Kharpavo gi bel It is used as fodder for cattle. The root is purgative and diuretic.
Cryptolepis buchanani Roem & Schult. Asclepiadaceae Indian Sarsaparilla (black var.) Doodh bel Blood-purifier, alternative, used for rickets in children, in combination with euphorbia microphylla, the herb is used as a galactagogic, its decoction of the stem is used as a supporting drugs in paralysis, of the root bark in rheumatism.
Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. Cuscutaceae Amar bel /Akash bel Neela Dhari Plant decoction is given for rheumatic pain. The local people use its sap to prevent dandruff. The hair also becomes soft and silky.
Dioscorea alata L. Dioscoreaceae Purple Yam Tar gi bel Roots cooked- usually boiled or baked and used as a vegetable.
Dioscorea bulbifera L. Dioscoreaceae Air potato-Wild yam Local name: Kaenthi gandaa Boiled bulbuls are eaten for food. Bulbils are also used as birth control pill.
Diplocyclos palmatus (L.) Jeffrey Cucurbitaceae Striped cucumber or (bryony) Khakhun leaves are used against inflammation and impotency, in the treatment of malarial fever. Plant is also used as an antidote to snake bite, roots are used in the treatment of asthma.
Ficus pumila L. Moraceae Creeping fig Doda gi bel The aerial parts constitute a systematic remedy and blood reconstituent. They are used in treating chronic dysentery, hemorrhoids, impotence, menstrual disorders, boils and impetigo.
Ficus sarmentosa Buch-Ham. ex Smith. Moraceae Fig tree Doda gi bel Used as a fodder and used as firewood.
Fragaria vesca L. Rosaceae Strawberry Kenichoe Wild strawberry leaves are mildly astringent and diuretic. The plant is little used medicinally today but it can be taken to treat diarrhea and dysentery. The leaves were used as a gargle for sore throats, and in a lotion for minor burns and grazes.
Gloriosa superba L Colchicaceae Flame lily, Climbing lily, It is used as ornamental plant. Tubers used in rheumatism, sexual stimulant but very small doses because tubers are very toxic and may cause death.
Hedera nepalensis K. Koch Araliaceae Himalayan ivy Leaves are useful for diabetes, cathartic and diaphoretic. Berries are purgative and use to cure febrile disorders.
Helinus lanceolatus Brandis. Rhamnaceae Saltbush and orache Chamba Ki bel Plant extract is useful for scabies and skin disease.
Ichnocarpus frutescens (L.) R. Br. Apocynaceae Black creeper The roots are sweet, refrigerant, febrifuge, aphrodisiac, alternate, diuretic, demulcent and tonic. They are useful in vitiated conditions of Pitta, burning sensation hyperdipsia, fever, seminal weakness, Cephalalgia and general weakness.
Ipomoea indicia (Burm. F.) Merr. Convolvulaceae (Blue dawn flower) Morning glory Kharpavo gi bel The leaves are used as soap to wash clothes. The sap from the crushed leaves is drunk to relieve dysentery.
Ipomoea nil L. Convolvulaceae Japanese morning glory, ivy morning glory Ilri gii bel the seeds are officials in the Indian pharmacopoeia are a purgative and are a substitute for Jalap (Ipomoea purge (Winder) Hayne.
Ipomoea pes-tigridis L. Convolvulaceae Tiger footprint (Tiger’s paw) Ilri gii bel Stem and leaves are used for eyes and skin disorders. Fruit with persistent calyx is used in impotency.
Ipomoea purpurea (L.) Roth Convolvulaceae Common morning glory Ilri bel Uses as fodder.
Ipomoea tricolor L. Convolvulaceae Mexican morning glory Kharpavo gi bel The seeds contain small quantities of the hallucinogen. This has been used medicinally in the treatment of various mental disorders.
Ipomoea triloba L. Convolvulaceae Aiea morning glory, Iri gi bel Uses as fodder.
Jasminum dispermum Wallich. Oleaceae Pink jasmine Chameli, It is used as fodder for cattle.
Lathyrus aphaca L. fabaceae Yellow Pea Jungli mutter The ripe seeds are used to be antibacterial narcotic. They are used in the treatment of toothache.
Lonicera quinquelocularis Hardw. Caprifoliaceae Translucent honeysuckle It is used as fodder for cattle.
Lonicera japonica Thumb. Caprifoliaceae Japanese honeysuckle The stems and flowers buds are alternative, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, depurative, diuretic, and febrifuge.
J Luffa cylindrica L M. Roem. Curcurbitaceae Sponge gourd Jungli lokii The fruits are diuretic emollient depurative, laxative, anthelmintic and galactagogue. They are useful in vitiated condition of Pitta, splenopathy.
Lygodium japonicum (Thumb.) Sw. Lygodiaceae Vine-like fern Boojni / kunji The plant is used as an expectorant. A decoction of the vegetative parts and spores is used as a diuretic.
Marsilea quadrifolia L. Marsileaceae Four leaf/ Chopattia Khatri The plant is also applied externally in the treatment of snake bites and skin injuries, including abscesses.
Oxalis corniculata L Oxialidaceaae Creeping wood sorrel, or (Procumbent yellow sorrel) Desi Shutal The plant is used as a remedy for convulsions in children and for healing fractured bones. The ground leaves are eaten as chutney to help purify the blood. Ground leaves are also used in treating dizziness, diarrhea and dysentery. The juice from leaves is applied to open wounds. The plant is used to treat burn wounds and body sores.
Polygonum capaitatum Buch. –Ham. ex D. Don Syn. Persicaria capitata Polygonaceae Knot weed It has antibacterial, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, diuretic, and anti-oxidative properties. It is commonly used to treat various urologic disorders including urinary calculus and urinary tract infections.
Quisquails indica L. Combretaceae Rangoon creeper, Malti Ascariasis, ringworm disease, infant, malnutrition. Fruits and seeds anthelmintic. Seeds soporific also. Ripe seeds roasted and given in diarrhea and fever, also used in rickets. Macerated in oil, seeds used for application in parasitic skin troubles. Seeds yield fatty oil with purgative action.
Rosa moschata Herrm Rosaceae Musk rose Phalwari Root extract is aphrodisiac. Flowers with white rice are used as purgative, anthelmintic and digestive disorders.
Rubia cordifolia L. Rubiaceae Manjisha /Indian madder Khori bel The leaf stem and roots are used to cure eczema and other skin diseases by local People. They are useful in colic wounds, ulcers, Pectoral disease and debility.1-2 cm long piece of root is grounded and mixed with powder of 4-5 black peppers is given to the patient with water to treat Oedema.
Smilax aspera L. Smilacaceae Rough bindweed Dodaa bel. The ripe fruits are squeezed and applied to the skin in the treatment of scabies.
Solena amplexicaulis (Lam). Gandhi Cucurbitaceae Creeping cucumber Bun kereli The tuberous roots are sour, astringent, thermogenic, appetizer, carminative, digestive, purgative, expectorant and invigorating. The leaves are useful in allergic inflammations and the seeds are used for their purgative action.
Tinospora cordifolia (Lour.). Merr. Menispermaceae Gilo, Gurch Gilo, gulch T. cordifolia is used in the Indian Ayurvedic system of medicine for the treatment of Jaundice, diabetes, and rheumatoid arthritis and also used, as an immune stimulant.
Trichosanthes cucumerina L. var. anguina Cucurbitaceae Wild Snake Gourd Khaakri Tender fruit is used as vegetable. Fruit extract is very useful for jaundice and other liver and digestive disorders.
Tylophora hirsuta Wight Asclepiadaceae Emetic swallow-wory Ulti gii bel. The roots and leaves are sweet, acrid, aromatic, emetic, purgative, expectorant, vulnerary, diaphoretic, stomachic and antiviral.
Vicia hirsuta L Fabaceae Hairy tare Nile phalli No medicinal uses for V. sativa were found in the literature, but the leaves are edible. It has a high economic importance as green manure and forage.
Vicia sativa L. Fabaceae Common vetch, Nile phalli It is used as fodder for cattle
Vitis jacquemontii L Family: Vitaceae Wild grape Daakh Sap of young branches used as remedy for skin disease. Leaves astringent used in diarrhea. Juice of unripe fruits as astringent used in throat infections. Sap of plant is given against foot and hand burning. Vitis sap is used to treat heart disease.

Table 1: Data collected for various uses of these species.

medicinal-aromatic-plants-racemosus

Figure 1: Asparagus racemosus Willd.

medicinal-aromatic-plants-halicacabum

Figure 2: Cardiospermum halicacabum L.

medicinal-aromatic-plants-pareria

Figure 3: Cissampelos pareria L.

medicinal-aromatic-plants-buchananiana

Figure 4: Clematis buchananiana.

medicinal-aromatic-plants-arvensis

Figure 5: Convolvulus arvensis L.

medicinal-aromatic-plants-buchanani

Figure 6: Cryptolepis buchanani Roem.

medicinal-aromatic-plants-reflexa

Figure 7: Cuscuta reflexa Roxb.

medicinal-aromatic-plants-alata

Figure 8: Dioscorea alata L.

medicinal-aromatic-plants-dioscorea

Figure 9: Dioscorea bulbifera L.

medicinal-aromatic-plants-palmatus

Figure 10: Diplocyclos palmatus L.

medicinal-aromatic-plants-ficus

Figure 11: Ficus pumila L.

medicinal-aromatic-plants-buch-ham

Figure 12: Ficus sarmentosa Buch-Ham.

medicinal-aromatic-plants-fragaria-vesca

Figure 13: Fragaria vesca L.

medicinal-aromatic-plants-gloriosa

Figure 14: Gloriosa superba L.

medicinal-aromatic-plants-nepalensis

Figure 15: Hedera nepalensis K.

medicinal-aromatic-plants-lanceolatus

Figure 16: Helinus lanceolatus Wall.

medicinal-aromatic-plants-frutescens

Figure 17: Ichnocarpus frutescens L.

medicinal-aromatic-plants-indicia

Figure 18: Ipomoea indicia (Burm. F.)

medicinal-aromatic-plants-ipomoea

Figure 19: Ipomoea nil L.

medicinal-aromatic-plants-purpurea

Figure 20: Ipomoea purpurea (L.)

medicinal-aromatic-plants-tricolor

Figure 21: Ipomoea tricolor L.

medicinal-aromatic-plants-triloba

Figure 22: Ipomoea triloba L.

medicinal-aromatic-plants-dispermum

Figure 23: Jasminum dispermum Wallich.

medicinal-aromatic-plants-aphaca

Figure 24: Lathyrus aphaca L.

medicinal-aromatic-plants-quinquelocularis

Figure 25: Lonicera quinquelocularis Hardw.

medicinal-aromatic-plants-japonica

Figure 26: Lonicera japonica Thumb.

medicinal-aromatic-plants-cylindrica

Figure 27: Luffa cylindrica L.M. Roem.

medicinal-aromatic-plants-lygodium

Figure 28: Lygodium japonicum.

medicinal-aromatic-plants-quadrifolia

Figure 29: Marsilea quadrifolia L.

medicinal-aromatic-plants-marsilea

Figure 30: Marsilea quadrifolia L.

medicinal-aromatic-plants-corniculata

Figure 31: Oxalis corniculata L.

medicinal-aromatic-plants-capaitatum

Figure 32: Polygonum capaitatum Buch.

medicinal-aromatic-plants-indica

Figure 33: Quisquails indica L.

medicinal-aromatic-plants-moschata

Figure 34: Rosa moschata Herm.

medicinal-aromatic-plants-rubia

Figure 35: Rubia cordifolia L.

medicinal-aromatic-plants-aspera

Figure 36: Smilax aspera L.

medicinal-aromatic-plants-amplexicaulis

Figure 37: Solena amplexicaulis Lam.

medicinal-aromatic-plants-tinospora

Figure 38: Tinospora cordifolia (Lour.).Merr.

medicinal-aromatic-plants-cucumerina

Figure 39: Trichosanthes cucumerina L.

medicinal-aromatic-plants-hirsuta

Figure 40: Tylophora hirsuta Wight.

medicinal-aromatic-plants-vicia-hirsute

Figure 41: Vicia hirsute L.

medicinal-aromatic-plants-sativa

Figure 42: Vicia sativa L.

medicinal-aromatic-plants-jacquemontii

Figure 43: Vitis jacquemontii L.

Discussion and Conclusion

Rajouri district is located on southerly foothills of the Pir Panjal Himalaya are botanically the least surveyed area in Jammu Province with very little preliminary information of available on their flora, this data matches with that of Singh and Kirn provide a list of some alpine plants of Poonch; Kirn presented a brief account of some medicinal plants of Pir Panjal range: Singh gave an introductory account of some wild flowering plants of Rajouri; Vir Jee et al. reported their concise taxa-ethnobotanical observation made in some rural areas of Rajouri. During the present investigation, it was found that almost all the species of twiner and climbers recorded for their ethnobotanical uses were found medicinally important. Over utilization not only degraded the local vegetation and natural beauty but also made certain species endangered Rubia cordifolia L., Vitis jacquemontii L. Dioscorea bulbifera L. Tinospora cordifolia Willd. Hook. Were disappearing day by day. Total certain direct crusades such as commercial and subsistence purposes and indirect crusades such as insecure land tenure, poverty and population growth were also influencing the local vegetation. Therefore there is a desperate need for the aegis of this wealth of nature until it vanishes on this planet.

Author Info

Tahir Mahmood*
 
Extension Scientist, Centre for Biodiversity Studies, Baba Ghulam Shah Badshah University, Rajouri, India
 

Citation: Mohmood T (2019) Ethnobotanical Study of Useful Climbers Creepers & Twiners of Baba Ghulam Shah Badshah University campus and Adjoining Areas of District Rajouri (J&K). Med Aromat Plants (Los Angeles) 8: 340. doi: 10.35248/2167-0412.19.8.340

Received: 23-Jul-2019 Accepted: 04-Dec-2019 Published: 11-Dec-2019 , DOI: 10.35248/2167-0412.19.8.340

Copyright: © 2019 Mohmood T. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.