Medicinal & Aromatic Plants

Medicinal & Aromatic Plants
Open Access

ISSN: 2167-0412

Short Communication - (2022)Volume 11, Issue 4

Essential Ideas for Understanding Citrus Pharmacological Actions

George Elloite*
*Correspondence: George Elloite, Department of Natural Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden, Email:

Author info »


Due to its methods for both preventative and therapeutic measures, traditional medical systems like Ayurveda, Homeopathy, etc., are becoming more and more well-liked and interesting across the world. Traditional methods utilize components that are naturally occurring in the environment. The majority of these compounds not only have medicinal benefits but also nutritional ones. According to epidemiological data, nutrition has a significant impact on human health and the management of a number of chronic conditions, such as hyperlipidemia and cardiovascular diseases [1,2]. There are 130 genera in the seven subfamilies of the Citrus genus (Rutaceae), which produces several significant fruits and essential oils. Carotenoids, coumarins, folate, and flavonoids are all potential sources of vitamin C in the fruits of this genus. They are regarded as a crucial component of the diet. According to reports, vitamin C has antioxidant and antiscorbutic properties.

Anti-oxidant activity

Due to alterations in motor coordination in naloxone-treated Swiss albino mice, C. limon essential oil has demonstrated antioxidant activity in reducing lipoperoxidation and has an antinociceptive effect through central inhibitory pathways [3]. Additionally, it has a sizable anti-oxidative protective effect on the mouse hippocampus during neurodegenerative disorders. By balancing the levels of oxidative stress, regular use of lemon essential oil dissolved in grape seed oil may help prevent skin conditions associated to lifestyle choices.

Antiulcer activity

In chronic stomach ulcers caused by acetic acid, lemon juice had a negligible ulcer healing effect and augmented the effects of pantoprazole and ranitidine. The anti-secretory and antiulcer effects of the juice were seen in pyloric ligated rats. In ethanolinduced, stress-induced, and indomethacin-induced stomach ulcers, both dosages of lemon juice significantly reduced the severity of the ulcers [4]. In duodenal ulcers caused by cysteamine, lemon juice also decreased the size of the ulcer. Lemon juice increases the antiulcer effects of pantoprazole and a ranitidine when taken together. In the ethanol-induced lesion model, the essential oils of Citrus lemon L. (250 mg/kg) and limonene (177 mg/kg) significantly protect the stomach mucosa.

Anthelmintic and insecticidal activity

Comparative tests on Citrus reticulate and C. sinensis as larvicides against Aedes albopictus were conducted in a Research. The results showed that C. sinensis had the highest limonin concentration (LC50), percentage of death (97%) and lethal time (LT50) (18.49 h), followed by C. reticulate with LC50 (377.4 ppm), percentage of mortality (88%) and LT50 (18.49 h) (31 h). In comparison to fresh diluted fruit juice, fresh C. aurantium fruit juice was shown to have promising anthelmintic efficacy against the Indian earthworms Pheritima posthuma. According to reports, the leaves of C. medica have the power to paralyse and kill earthworms (P. posthuma). The highest dosage (80 mg/ml) of petroleum ether extract was reported to have a 30.86 minute death and paralysis induction time [5].

Anticancer and cytotoxic activity

When given intraperitoneally to Swiss mice bearing Ehrlich ascites carcinoma for 9 days, methanolic extract of the citrus limetta fruit peel at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg showed a significant reduction in tumour volume, viable tumor cell count, tumor weight, and a significant improvement in haematological parameters, white blood cell count, and life span. With a concentration of 100 g/ml after 48 hours, C. aurantifolia oil inhibited human colon cancer cells (SW-480) by 78%. Through the stimulation of apoptosis, it may help prevent colon cancer [6]. The cancer cell line LIM1856 is cytotoxic when exposed to C. limon essential oil in a test tube. The aqueous extract of C. aurantifolia has cytoprotective properties against liver damage caused by rats exposed to aflatoxin B1.

Antimicrobial action

Clinical isolates of Klebsiella pneumonia, Klebsiella aerogenes, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus were all suppressed by C. limon fruit juice. When compared to one another, C. aurantium showed greater antifungal activity against Colletotrichum capsici while C. sinensis peel extracts had a noticeable antibacterial effect.


Fresh and dried citrus and sweet lemon aqueous extracts showed antibacterial activity against six Gram-positive, eight Gramnegative, and one yeast strain. Since Lentinus sajor-caju, the fungus that causes white rot in wood, is very resistant to C. sinensis seed oil, it can be utilised as a preservation agent in the treatment of wood infected with the fungus. C. limon is said to be extremely susceptible to Propionibacterium acnes, the bacterial species that causes Acne vulgaris. All the bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, S. aureus, and E. coli) and fungus (Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger) were inhibited to varying degrees by the methanolic extract of C. sinensis fruit peel.


Author Info

George Elloite*
Department of Natural Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden

Citation: Elloite G (2022) Key Concepts Elucidating the Pharmacological Actions of Citrus Genus. Med Aromat Plant.11:447.

Received: 25-Oct-2022, Manuscript No. MAP-22-19725; Editor assigned: 28-Oct-2022, Pre QC No. MAP-22-19725; Reviewed: 11-Nov-2022, QC No. MAP-22-19725; Revised: 21-Nov-2022, Manuscript No. MAP-22-19725; Published: 30-Nov-2022 , DOI: 10.35248/2167-0412.22.11.447

Copyright: © 2022 Elloite G. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.