Effects and Causes of Parkinson Disease
Journal of Psychology & Psychotherapy

Journal of Psychology & Psychotherapy
Open Access

ISSN: 2161-0487

+44 20 3868 9735

Commentry - (2022)Volume 12, Issue 4

Effects and Causes of Parkinson Disease

Sameh Rahma*
*Correspondence: Sameh Rahma, Department of Psychology, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran, Email:

Author info »


Parkinson's disease is a progressive disorder in which a part of the brain deteriorates, affecting the nervous system and parts of the body which nerves control, causing more severe symptoms over time. It is defined as an age-related degenerative brain disease that causes involuntary or uncontrollable movements, like shaking, stiffness, difficulty with balance and coordination. Symptoms start slowly, even occurs for unknown reasons, but some of them are occurred due to hereditary. The first symptom may be a barely noticeable tremor in just one hand. Tremor is common but can also cause stiffness and slowness of movement. As the disease progresses, walking and speaking may become difficult. In the early stages of Parkinson's disease, there may be little or no facial expression, the arms may not swing while walking, and the speech may be soft or slurred. Mental and behavioral changes, sleep disturbances, depression, memory problems, and fatigue may also occur. Parkinson's symptoms worsen as the condition of the person progresses over time. There is no cure for Parkinson's disease, but medications can significantly improve the symptoms. Occasionally, doctors may recommend surgery to modify certain areas of the brain and improves symptoms. The signs and symptoms of Parkinson's disease are different for each person. Early signs are mild and may go unnoticed. Symptoms often starts on one side of the body and usually gets worse on that side even after symptoms start affecting limbs on both the sides.

Signs and symptoms of Parkinson's disease

• Tremor or rhythmic shaking usually begins in the limb, often in the hands and fingers. The person may rub the thumb and index finger back and forth. This is called pill rolling tremor. Hands may tremble at rest. Performing tasks may reduce shaking.

• Slowed movement also called bradykinesia: Over time, Parkinson's disease slows the movement, makes simple tasks difficult and time consuming. Getting up from a chair can be difficult. Attempts to walk may result in limping or shuffling. Steps may become shorter while walking.

• Muscle stiffness can occur in any part of the body. Tight muscles are painful and limit the range of motion. Impaired posture and balance. As a result of Parkinson's disease the posture may be stooped, the person may fall or have balance problems.

• Loss of automatic movement. The person may have a reduced ability to make involuntary movements, such as blinking, smiling, or swinging the arms while walking.

• They may speak softly, quickly, slurred, or hesitantly before talking. The speech may be more monotonous than the normal speech pattern.

• The writing changes as it becomes difficult to write and characters may look small.

Virtually anyone can be at risk of developing Parkinson's disease, but some research studies suggest that Parkinson's disease affects men more than women. The most prominent signs and symptoms of Parkinson’s disease occur when nerve cells in the basal ganglia, the area of the brain that controls movement, are damaged or die. Normally, these nerve cells or neurons produce an important brain chemical known as dopamine. When neurons die or are damaged, dopamine production is reduced, leading to disease-associated movement problems. The cause of Parkinson's disease is unknown, but several factors seem to play a role, including genes, environmental triggers, presence of lewy bodies, α-synuclein found in lewy bodies.

Author Info

Sameh Rahma*
Department of Psychology, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

Citation: Rahma S (2022) Effects and Causes of Parkinson Disease. J Psychol Psychother. 12:436.

Received: 02-Nov-2022, Manuscript No. JPPT-22-20922; Editor assigned: 04-Nov-2022, Pre QC No. JPPT-22-20922 (PQ); Reviewed: 18-Nov-2022, QC No. JPPT-22-20922; Revised: 25-Nov-2022, Manuscript No. JPPT-22-20922 (R); Published: 02-Dec-2022 , DOI: 10.35248/2161-0487.22.12.436

Copyright: © 2022 Rahma S. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.