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Consumption of Sexually Explicit Content Through Web Series and Emerging Adults' Sexual Objectification: An Empirical Study
Reproductive System & Sexual Disorders: Current Research

Reproductive System & Sexual Disorders: Current Research
Open Access

ISSN: 2161-038X

+44 7460731551

Research Article - (2021) Volume 10, Issue 6

Consumption of Sexually Explicit Content Through Web Series and Emerging Adults' Sexual Objectification: An Empirical Study

Farahat Ali1*, Muhammad Awais2, Ali Ashraf1 and Muniba Fatima1
 
*Correspondence: Farahat Ali, Department of Faculty of Media and Communication Studies, University of Central Punjab, Pakistan, Tel: 92 3457464342, Email:

Author info »

Abstract

Modern technologies play a significant role in shaping gender perception and adolescents giving more emphasize on the external rather than internal features of an individuals. This study has been designed to examine the effects of the sexually explicit content of web series on emerging adults’ objectification. Survey method was applied, and data was collected from 700 undergraduate participant ages 18 to 23 studying in various public and private sector universities of Lahore, Pakistan. The study is driven by theoretical framework of uses and gratification and objectification theory. The result of the study showed that exposure of sexually explicit content through web series among male was strongly correlated with sexual objectification, dis-empathy, commenting about women’s body and insulting unattractive women. Moreover, web series exposure of sexually explicit content among female was not significantly correlated with male objectification. In addition to this, web series exposure is a significant predictor of sexual objectification disempathy, commenting about women’s body and insulting unattractive women among male university students. On the other hand, web series exposure of sexually explicit content is not significant predictor of sexual objectification among female university students. Hence the information acquired in this study can help in understanding the objectification decision made by males and females of this society and motivate parents to keep check on the type of contents their children are exposed to. Implication regarding media effects on gender perception and sexual objectification among male and females are discussed.

Keywords

Explicit media content; Media effects; Sexual attitudes; Sexual behavior; Sexual objectification

Introduction

Commodification of male and female body is becoming a routine in web series. The seasons of games of thrones and Spartacus remained in press for their gender subordination, high rating and explicit sexual material. This phenomenon has been attracted the TV channels attention, and everyone tries to produce more erotic content for admiration of their work. Recently, Netflix app released a new reality television series with the name of too hot to handle is a new addition to sexually explicit content. Web series due to their length of storyline produce more powerful affect in shaping up public opinion and perception with respect to any occasion or occurring on national and world-wide level. These web series are a major source of the sexual information is media and this study is related to the effects of these sexual contents on males and females of university students of Lahore. New technologies day by day are adding up new ways to approach these sexual contents more easily and readily [1].

It believed that many adults who are not much aware of sexuality, for them media act as a teacher. Male and female both are used as an object in media, but, media objectifies women more as compared to men. In media males and females are portrayed in sexual roles, which becomes the source of entertainment and visual pleasure. This factor of objectification plays an important role in the lives of consumers, when male and female watch such type of contents in which male or female are portraying as a sex object then this affect them badly, this will change their perceptions towards opposite sex as only sex objects. These changes in behavior of consumers has been seen in every field, whether they are in academics institutes, offices or in public [2].

Media contents and their characters acts as a role model for males and females, especially when they watch their favorite or famous artist on media, they try to follow their acts, without thinking that whether they are good or bad for their own health. Therefore, the aim of this study is to find out relationship between the effects of sexual contents and attitudes formation. Greater exposure leads to stronger support and acceptance. According to sexual behavior in adolescents is neither related to number of hours of television viewing nor number of hours of sexual content viewing, but if the time in which consumer is consuming media is mostly based on sexual content then this will affect the consumers mind and behavior [3].

It found that internet is the most common form of media among males and females. On internet different social websites allow user to communicate with others. These websites contain sexual contents which are easily approachable and affects the mind of consumers. So, parents’ control is must, in order to keep check on their youngster’s activities. Sexual violence is also the result of these contents. When males and females watch sexual content on media and try to apply them on their life, then many cases turn out in sexual violence. Researcher conduct a survey in which they investigate that movies that show sexual violence, results in more acceptance of violence towards women. Sexual contents in the television and magazines has also been discussed, that exposure of males and females towards these contents changes their mind. Sexual health risks and negative emotions are results of these exposures [4].

Ready menu of sexual contents in every web series are now available and this led to premarital sex and wrong beliefs regarding relationships. This study additionally gives a knowledge to propose what steps must be taken in future to avoid the effects of media sexual contents [5].

Media contents frame an essential part of communication through which different concepts are circulated. Web series contains heavy doses of sexual content, which influence youngster’s behavior. According to analysis approximately 85% of films, 82% of television contents and 59 % of music videos contain sexually explicit contents In this study only web series were selected because several studies have already been conducted on television, magazine, and internet. Web series were selected due to their immense worldwide usage and worldwide coverage [6].

Previously, several research studies have been published about the relationship between TV/internet/movies/music videos and sexual attitude and sexual harassment. No study has been done regarding web series exposure and objectification of male and female among university students. To fill this gap, current study investigates the connection between sexual web series contents and behavioral changes due to effects. Both male and female students of different universities in Lahore are covered. Objectification and Uses and Gratification theory has been applied in this research. On the basis of existing literature following objectives and hypothesis has been formulated [7].

Objectives of the study

The objectives of the study are:

To find out the effects of sexually explicit content of web series on objectification of males and females.

To analyze the difference of behaviors of males and females after exposure to sexual contents.

Literature review

It argued that males and females of every age group are involve in sexual activities. They approach different media to seek sexual contents, so researchers try exploring the connection between seeking sexual content from different types of media and changes in behaviors. Model of Behavioral Prediction is used, and sample is collected from 810 adolescents. Male adolescents are more involved than females for seeking sexual content from pornography sites on internet, TV, movies. Researchers argue that consuming sexual content from media depends on the intention to seek them and these intentions operate by prescriptive pressure [8].

Society’s early involvement in sexual activities lead to increase rate of unintentional pregnancies and infections transmitted during sexual intercourse. It investigated the links and connection between early consumption of sexual content and having multiple sex partners which affects badly the sexual health of youngster in U.S. He found that movies sexual exposure increases the chances of youngsters’ involvement in sexual activities by triggering them more to seek sexual content. He found that about 57% of adolescents use media for seeking sexual knowledge [9].

In another study, found that internet, television, and movies affects the sexual behavior of youngsters. It investigated the role of four agents’ which includes friends, television media, female guardian, and male guardian on the four sexual expectancies. In order to explore the associations between these four agents and sexual attitudes researcher used structural equation model. Link between music videos and social interest is found to be positive and link between music videos exposure and health related risk found to be negative. They found that our interaction with our friends will generate positive results entertainment purpose but negative for our social benefit and health [10].

It explored the sexual contents in music by using meta-analytic analysis. First time meta-analysis is made on this topic. In past researches, 26 studies show that sexual content in music affect consumer’s behavior. Music lyrics and genre are also main contributors in these behavioral changes. Consumers age, gender, location also matter. It selected the top music songs from famous Billboard magazine. The results of their study showed that 279 songs have sexual acts in their contents. And more shameful acts of sexualities are found in these songs, than common type of sexual acts. National songs have no sexual content, but except this majority of songs have degrading sexual contents mostly Rap songs. And songs which contain sexual contents and violence affect badly the sexual behaviors of consumers. It believes that for males and females television programs are main source of sex education. So, it’s important to take under consideration these web series.

Objectification

Objectification is defined as treating someone or giving importance to someone one the basis of their external features rather than internal beauty or characteristics. It found that objectification dominates all personal characters and existence of individual. In this study researcher explore the role of this divesting feeling in objectification. Two studies have been conducted for this purpose which conclude that objectification contradict with the real existence of person. Whereas in this case other study suggests that girls are more affected by objectification as compared to boys. Survey has been conducted among boys and girls in which objectification and depression is discussed, that causes because of our society who plays an important role in body shaming. Results show that there is direct relationship between depression in girls and objectification.

It argued that this role of objectification can be categories in high and low objectification. In which females are divided in two groups in high objectification they try swimsuit and in low objectification they try sweaters. Females in sweaters get more negative comments than females in swimsuit. While negative comments also give motivation to depress ones. It conducted a survey on sample of undergraduate students, on which all these negative effects (mental issues, psychological issues, eating disorders) has been tested. Because of objectification individuals are unable to detect their internal voices. Results show strong relationship between negative factors and objectification.

It discussed the eating disorders in males and females. According to researchers, our society plays main role in this problem. Societal pressure on the psychologies of females drag them to the condition of disorder eating. Therefore, it has been focused that how these variables (body shaming, eating disorder, self-objectification) are raised by objectification. By using model researcher has conducted a survey on 460 females of college level. Findings show again direct relationship between variables and objectification.

Media objectification

Objectification in this study is defined as the messages conveyed through the male actor or female actress to degrade women/male physical appearance either through sexual acts, jokes, double meaning words and the gags. It found that many studies have been conducted on media objectification which shows direct and strong relationship between variables and objectification. When both male and female watch contents on media in which models are shown with perfect body, then they start to idealize them and for this they starve themselves to look like them, which lead them to heavy eating disorder, mental disorder and dissatisfaction. In this study researcher focus on the same issue by conducting survey on undergraduate males and females. Results show very strong relationship. It has been also reported that male’s health and happiness get affected by these type of media contents but in females along with these, they also get emotionally hurt. Male behavior towards female changes when they watch models on media because they then start to idealize them and same is the case with females.

It investigated the role of media messages and conduct a survey on Australian females between the ages of 18 to 35, they all are expose to two conditions in first one they all are allowed to consume magazine contents, in which female sexual models are featured with male. And in second condition they are expose to magazines in which models are not featured. Results show that females who view models in magazines, report dissatisfaction with their own bodies, negative feelings and mood swings, as compared to other females of second group. Further the role of media objectification has been also studied in males.They conducted a survey on college male students about their psychologies after watching models on media and the role of BMI in their lives. Results show high level of desires in males for muscularity after watching ideal and muscular bodies on media. But in case of BMI, these variables have not affected the minds of males.

Then objectification has been measured in sports contents on media by They conduct a survey on 426 females, in which they were exposed to sports magazines and sports videos (video contents of thin males and females’ sports, and of non-lean females). In case of sports magazines results show feeling of satisfaction in adolescents of older ages. Self-objectification in youngsters have been seen which cause eating disorders, body shaming, body dissatisfaction and stress. In case of video contents of sports, there were two groups, one of White people and second were of other colors. White people has been affected with contents that show perfect bodies, while in case of color people they are affected by non-lean. These results conclude that cultural difference also plays an important role in selfobjectification. According to media representations of body, cause stress and factor of self-objectification in both genders. This research has been conducted on group of two years, Year 1 and Year 2, then their results are matched. Which show increase rate of self-objectification from year 1 to year 2. One thing has been noticed that objectifying sexual contents, affect males more as compared to females.

Media and attitude of males towards females

It believed that media contents play very important role in making attitudes negative of males towards females. Many studies on this issue have been conducted. In this study researcher focus on the effects of violent internet material like in pornography, and attitudes of males towards females after this change in behavior. Studies have been performed to judge this relationship of pornography and negative/violent attitudes. A survey has been conducted in which some psychology students and patrons have assigned to watch pornography. And in this case results show that hours of consuming pornographic content don’t affect the attitudes of males towards females. Then in another test participants have been allowed to consume erotica and psychology film for 4 hours each. Results show that change in perceptions has been seen in erotica but attitudes towards females do not change in both situations.

In another study, found the violent attitudes of males towards females. On media, violent contents play an important role in changing perceptions of individuals. According to researcher culture and gender are main things to study in this issue because they influence a lot the perceptions of males, especially when they see on media that males are dominating females, they adopt this as their culture and shape their attitudes accordingly.

It studied the women portrayal in TV advertisements in order to understand the changing attitudes of males towards females. A survey has been conducted and participants are assigned to rate advertisements or Images related to sex. Findings showed that consuming advertisements in which sex images are present, lead to higher sexual desires and negative attitudes towards females. For further understanding attitude towards Women Scale has been studied This scale has been then measured among participants within of different regions (South as well as of non- South) and on different timing. Findings show almost same results for male attitudes towards females. Participants of south report more conservative thoughts as compared to non-southern areas. These results have also changed according to generation and culture beliefs.

It studied the negative and positive attitudes of males towards females. In a survey on undergraduate male and female students, negative attitude of males towards females has been recorded. More research has been made on university students to measure their attitudes towards females. Findings show different results based on the thinking, beliefs and education of participants. Females don’t show any harsh attitudes against females. Individuals with more education show general and broad-based attitudes. Participants who have working mothers show different attitudes (not conservative at all) and same is the case with participants from low financial status. Another study has been conducted on university students by in which enrolled and non-enrolled students’ attitudes towards females has been measured. Results report that non-enrolled students show more positive attitudes towards females as compared to enrolled males.

Sexually explicit content and gender portrayal

It found that film stories are mostly opposite to real life, but as it’s very famous media so things that films portray affect cultural values. In this study researcher focus on the sexual contents that are present in movies and the portrayal of males and females. For this purpose, data has been collected from movies. Results show that males and females role remain same throughout the research years. Increase in sexual contents has been seen, with an increasing rate of violence. One major thing has been noted that throughout these years representation of males as dominating character over females do not change.

It studied British television contents, in order to study the portrayal of males and females in these contents. Data has been collected from Canada, America, Italy and Britain television advertisements. Findings show that representation of sex roles are different and weak in Britain advertisements as compared to Italy and North America. Content analysis has been also made on males and females’ portrayal in media. Females are usually characterized in media in a negative way like as a sex object. Their body has been used for different purposes for example to sell a product. Results report that females are under-represented on media, which also affects the image of females in real life and destroy them emotionally.

It investigated the music videos, in which 40 videos has been examined. Results show that male characters are mostly more than one in videos as compared to females. Males are usually shown as dominating characters on females and females has been shown as sex objects in contents. These results affect the consumers because when they watch such type of contents their attitudes towards females become more negative and violent. The studied the internet in a research along with television programs and music videos. They examined the gender portrayal and sexual attitudes. Researcher argue that portrayal of men as dominating and tough character and women as weak and sex objects has never been changed in these years. Data is collected from Dutch students (13 to 16 years old). Results show that relation between adolescents (both male and female) and rock/ fast music is positive while with classical music it is negative. Whereas in case of sexual attitudes among males they approach internet to consume sexual contents that affect them badly and changes their behavior towards females.

Portrayal of males and females has been also discussed in the context of video games by findings report that females have been portrayed more as compared males and mostly in sexual way. Males are usually portrayed in action roles and more than two or three times than females. Further the effects of these negative contents have been discussed because they influence the users badly.

Material and Method

Uses and gratification

Uses and gratification theory also known as Utility Theory. This research has used this theory in exploring why individuals expose to certain type of communications which they prefer for themselves, why they understand only a little proportion of their exposure and why only remember some. According to this theory explains that using media and selection of media merely depends on the us0ers. These users play an important and active role in this process. They use media sources that fulfill their needs and goals at their best states that media users have variety of options to satisfy and fulfill their needs. Media users watch media, perceive according to their understanding and remember only that part of information that best satisfy their desires and pleasurable for them in some way. Therefore, this study focusses on the sexual contents of different media sources that are preferred by targeted users.

Uses and Gratification theory is applied in this study on males and females to judge why they consume sexual content and what are the effects of these contents on their behaviors. Media act as an agent that influence observer. All types of media (Television, Internet, Magazines and Mobile social media) has been studied to explore this relationship. Males and females consume media sexual content, not all of these contents effect their behavior but when they approach particular type of content that fulfill their needs than this will have greater influence on them. The sexual contents they consume have different messages like, portrayal of women as sex object, males dominate females by the act of sexual violence, women harassment etc., so these type of things on media shapes the mind of males towards females more negatively, which lead to the behavioral changes. People have different needs and desires depending on their age, like youngster’s approach internet more as compared to other sources for fulfilment of their desires.

Objectification theory

Objectification theory presented in which women was described as sexual object. Theory argues that women are valued by their physical appearance and it perceived as an object piece in media. Both Researchers branded the internalization of body viewpoint as self-objectification. The habitual body monitoring, selfpresentation and self-evaluation characterized by selfobjectification and that relate numerous mental health problems. Two American and Australian ladies provide a significant support to objectification theory over a decade This theory support current study that use of web series increase selfobjectification amongst youth. It is not only affecting females, but males are also under its influence. Objectification theories mostly use for women appearances that women are more effect with this term. In this study we will examine on both male and female for interesting results. On the basis of above literature and theoretical framework following hypotheses have been constructed.

Hypotheses

The hypotheses design for the study are as follows:

H1: There is significant relationship between web series exposure, sexual objectification of females’, dis-empathy and commenting about females’ bodies and insulting of unattractive females.

H2: There is significant relationship between web series exposure and female’s objectification of males.

H3: Web series exposure is a significant predictor of sexual objectification of females’, Dis-empathy and Commenting about female's Bodies and insulting unattractive females among male university student.

H4: Web series exposure is a significant predictor of females’ objectification of males among female university students.

Instrument

Web series Exposure: The items of this scale were constructed with the help of different studies who used television, internet, movies and songs as exposure for the prediction of sexual behavior and attitude in male. The respondents were asked about the exposure to different web series which are available on internet and Netflix. Responses were taken from those students who have watched the Game of thrones, money heist, Spartacus, Shameless, Easy, The Borgias, Sex Education, The Tudors, and Masters of Sex. The reliability of scale was checked, and Cronbach alpha value was α=.71.

Objectification: The items for the men's objectification of women questionnaire, came from statistical analysis of the data found in the Curran study (2004). In this study, factor analysis revealed three components of men's objectification of women which includes sexual objectification, dis-empathy and commenting about bodies, insulting unattractive women and media exposure. The sexual objectification factor contains 7 items, dis-empathy and commenting about bodies also contain 9 items while insulting unattractive women contain 6 items. There were total 22 items used in the study to measure the male students’ objectification of female students. Moreover, to measure of female objectification of men contains 25 items in the same Zolot study. The reliability of both scales was checked, and Cronbach alpha value was sexual objectification (α=.82), dis-empathy and commenting about bodies (α=.76), insulting unattractive women (α=.72). The Cronbach alpha value for female objectification of men scale was α=.86.

Data collection procedure

The study data was collected between September to November 2019 and the data for this study was collected through a survey based on questionnaire that was selected as a tool for data collection. The study targeted the male and female students aged 18 to 23 years. This criterion was further divided into three categories –lower middle and upper class. All 350 males and 350 females’ students responded the survey. Different private and public universities of Lahore was selected as the field of study. It is the second largest city of Pakistan and cosmopolitan in nature. Being a metropolis of the country’s largest province Punjab, the universities of Lahore caters the students from poor to rich, illiterate to highly educated families. These universities population is heterogeneous, comprising people from all regions and ethnic groups like Punjabis, Seraikis, Pathan, Balochis, Sindhis, Kashmiris, etc.

Data analysis

Data analysis was conducted in SPSS version 25. Pearson correlation coefficient was used for correlation analysis while hierarchical linear regression was used to check the effect of independent variable on dependent variables by controlling the different demographic variables.

Results

Hypothesis 1: There is significant relationship between media exposure, sexual objectification of women, dis-empathy and commenting about women’s bodies and insulting of unattractive women. This study was done to determine whether there is a statistically significant relationship between sexual objectification, disempathy and commenting about bodies, insulting unattractive women and media exposure. The data were first screened for outliers and linearity using scatterplot; both rules were met. Normality was assessed with Shapiro-Wilk’s test (p>0.05). A Pearson product moment correlation was conducted to examine the relationships between sexual objectification, dis-empathy and commenting about women bodies, insulting unattractive women and media exposure. Web series exposure was more strongly correlated to Sexual objectification (350) =0.706, p<0.001, than dis-empathy and commenting about women’s body r(350)=0.665, p<0.001 and insulting unattractive women r(350)=0.617, p<0.001. Dis-empathy and commenting about women’s body was moderately correlated with insulting unattractive women r(350)=0.564), p<0.001 and strongly correlated with web series exposure r(350)=0.739),p<0.001. The relationship between web series exposure and insulting unattractive women was moderately correlated r(182)=0.557), p<0.001. A complete list of correlations is presented in table 1. These findings showed that media exposure have the strongest association with dis-empathy and commenting about women bodies (Table 1).

Variables 1 2 3 4
Web Series exposure 1 0.665** 0.617** 0.706**
Dis Empathy and Commenting About Women's Body   1 0.564** 0.739**
Insulting Unattractive Women     1 0.577**
Sexual Objectification       1

Table 1: Correlation between Web Series exposure, sexual objectification, dis-empathy and commenting about women bodies, and insulting unattractive women among Male Students.

Hypothesis 2: There is significant relationship between Web Series exposure and men’s objectification of women.

This analysis was conducted to determine whether there is a statistically significant relationship between female objectification of men and web series exposure. The data were first screened for outliers and linearity using scatterplot; both rules were met. Normality was assessed with Shapiro-Wilk’s test (p>0.05). A Pearson product moment correlation was directed to examine the relationships between web series exposure and female objectification of men female objectification of men was weakly and insignificantly correlated to web series exposure (350) =0.127, p>.05. A complete list of correlations is presented in (Table 2).

Variables 1 2
Web Series exposure 1  0.127
Female's Sexual Objectification 0.127 1

Table 2: Correlation between Web Series exposure and Female’s objectification of Men among Female Students.

Hypothesis 3: Web Series exposure is a predictor of sexual objectification, dis-empathy and commenting about women bodies, and insulting unattractive women.

A hierarchical linear regression was conducted to examine web series exposure can predict sexual objectification, dis-empathy and commenting about women bodies, and insulting unattractive women. The assumption of normality has been met. An analysis of standard residuals showed that the data contained no outliers (Std. residual min =-.259, std. residual max=2.030) independence of residual errors was confirmed with a Durbin –Watson test (d-2.073). Residual plots showed homoscedasticity and normality of the residuals.

Web series exposure considerably predicted sexual objectification (50%), dis-empathy and commenting about women bodies (55%), and insulting unattractive women accounting for 32 % change. Media exposure significantly predicted the dis-Empathy and commenting about women bodies (β=.74, p<.05) among the male students.

A hierarchical linear regression was conducted to examine whether web series exposure can female objectification for men. An analysis of standard residuals showed that the data contained no outliers (Std. residual min =-.259, std. residual max=2.030) independence of residual errors was confirmed with a Durbin –Watson test (d-2.073). Residual plots showed homoscedasticity and normality of the residuals. Media exposure insignificantly predicted female objectification for men F (6, 343) =2.20, p>.05, accounting for 1% change in female objectification for men (adjusted R square =.032). Web series exposure insignificantly predicted the female objectification for men among the female students.

Discussion

The goal of this study was to find out, through bivariate analysis, web series consumption which contains sexually explicit contents and measuring male and female objectification towards each other. Whether male and female objectification is linked with web series exposure or not. The basis of this study was the validation by earlier researchers throughout the globe that media exposure affects male and female sexual behaviors. The help of longitudinal study method survey reported that, the type of contents males and females consume from media always teaches them new lessons and they continuously change their behavior according to new learning, so their exposure may not vary but their behavior always keep changing. It believes that uses and gratification and objectification theory provides a perfect explanation framework that adolescent seeks sexual content and their choices of media vary, which affects their behavior. It also believes that youngsters are making their perceptions of having sexual relationships by watching sexual content on media. It discuss that sex education must be incorporated in the minds of youngsters in positive and healthy way. Because this high level of sexual media consumption is changing sexual behaviors of adolescents in western countries. Then according to consumers perceive these media messages real and compare them with their real life. Whether these contents are in visual form or in verbal form the level of impact on consumer is same.

Our hypothesis that there is significant relationship among web series exposure contain sexually explicit content, sexual objectification of women, dis-empathy and commenting about women’s bodies and insulting of unattractive women. The result show that there is significant relationship between these variables. Web series exposure have strong relationship with disempathy and commenting about women and moderate with insulting women and sexual objectification, moreover the study of asserts that media exposure has a strong link with sexual objectification.

Furthermore, adding to the study, the next hypothesis is that, there is significant relationship between web series exposure and female objectification of men. Stating this we can mention that the results of men objectification and media exposure are not strong enough to explain that media plays a vital role in female objectification of men, similarly the results of explained that there were significant effects on males because of female objectification as media exposure endorse greater level of anxiety in men. Reason for this is that might be men have a strong influence because they discuss the content with their friends and sometime, they watch these contents with their friends. On the other hand, female can not openly discuss the web series content with their friends.

The next hypothesis, web series exposure is a significant predictor of sexual objectification, dis-empathy and commenting about women's bodies and insulting unattractive women behavior among male students. The findings justify the statement because the results are significant. As states that media focuses on sexual objectification and provoke different behaviors in males. The outcome states a significant relationship as stated earlier. As researcher says that men do not know how much harm they are giving to women due to sexual objectification. As it is also discussed by who categorize females in two groups of high objectification and low objectification and concluded that media plays an important role in shaping views of males towards unattractive women.

Now coming towards female objectification of men, the two hypotheses that there is significant relationship between web series exposure and female objectification of men. Moreover, web series exposure is a significant predictor of female objectification of men. The results of both statements show that there is very weak relationship between media exposure and female objectification of men. The result shows that might be grooming of females in our society is different from men.

Limitations and Future Research

This study used a cross-sectional survey and generalizability of these results should be done with caution. Moreover, sample size of this study is also a limitation of the study because generalizing the results with this sample is not possible. Longitudinal and experiment studies could provide a better insight look to this phenomenon. This study collected the data from university student. Further studies could take the data from adolescents and older individual to check the effect of these web series on their objectification. Moreover, further studies could be performed by taking the different control variables such as sense making and perceived realism of these web series content.

Conclusion

The results of this study show that exposure of sexually explicit content is related to sexual objectification of others. This study will be helpful for media educators, parents and practitioners, so that they can educate the students about the detrimental effects of these content which is easily available on websites and on different apps. These results also suggest that we should consider consequences of the sexually explicit content available in web series.

References

Author Info

Farahat Ali1*, Muhammad Awais2, Ali Ashraf1 and Muniba Fatima1
 
1Department of Faculty of Media and Communication Studies, University of Central Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan
2Department of Media and Communication, University of Management and Technology, Sialkot, Pakistan
 

Citation: Ali F, Awais M, Ashraf A, Fatima M (2021) Consumption of Sexually Explicit Content Through Web Series and Emerging Adults' Sexual Objectification: An Empirical Study. Reprod Syst Sex Disord. Vol. 10 Iss. 6 No: 266.

Received Date: Apr 05, 2021 / Accepted Date: Apr 19, 2021 / Published Date: Apr 26, 2021

Copyright: © 2021 Ali F,et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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