Assessment Sense of Place, Citizens of Urban Public Space, with Emphasis on the Street a Case Study, Imam Street Mahabad
Journal of Geography  & Natural Disasters

Journal of Geography  & Natural Disasters
Open Access

ISSN: 2167-0587

Research Article - (2013) Volume 3, Issue 1

Assessment Sense of Place, Citizens of Urban Public Space, with Emphasis on the Street a Case Study, Imam Street Mahabad

Hassan Houshyar1* and Mansur Abdollahpouri2
1Assistant Professor of geography and Urban Planning, Payame Noor University, Iran
2MA student in Geography and Urban Planning, Payame Noor University, Iran
*Corresponding Author: Hassan Houshyar, Assistant Professor of geography and Urban Planning, Payame Noor University, Iran Email: ,


Socio-demographic features have been reported as an important factor in human attachment to places in several studies. So, regarding the role of public spaces on human social life, this study tries to examine this effect in a certain case in Iran regarding some socio-demographic indicators like: gender, age, education, marriage statue and job. With this aim, we surveyed place attachment in one of the most important public spaces in Mahabad, based on four its dimensions: functional, emotional, behavioral and cognitive attachment. Therefore, significance of the correlations between those socio-demographic indicators and different aspects of place attachment was evaluated. The interviews carried out with 598 of Mahabad citizens that participated in this study by random selection. We analyze the result with SPSS software applying T-test, Pearson correlation and F-test (ANOVA) exams. The results indicate, in comparison with other examined indicators; only user’s education level had significant relation with the place attachment degree and its emotional dimension. In addition, singles, older participants and also labors group reported more behavioral attachment to the place.

Keywords: Attachment to place; Public spaces; Sense of place; Marital status and occupation


Relationship between man and space is one of the most important research topics in the field of Architecture & Urban Planning and attachment to place, one of the most-discussed issues in the field. In various studies has been done so far on this have been several variables. That a significant proportion of its are noted individual features. As far have been individual characteristics social and cultural human subjects of research in the field of science, psychology, sociology, urban geography and urban planning. But of what, adds the importance of research the study is the type of place. Therefore, given the importance of urban spaces, the collective life of citizens and the necessity establish a link between men and place him again; this study was conducted in urban public spaces.

Research Question

1 - Is there a significant relationship between demographic characteristics and level of attachment to place it?

Research Question

Research done in the field of human relations and locations dating back mainly in the area of psychology, to the 1960s and 1970s, Means when was emphasized importance of place and its role in health increasingly. In this context came various terms such as sense of place, place identity, attachment to place and phrases from this. Among these attachment to place is as the main study, emotional expression a special place [1-3]. He relies on cognition and emotion [4,5]. In general can be said attachment to place, based process that is rooted in human interaction is based on a person’s emotions and how to understanding and respond to the place where he needs [6]. This means that is the method of evaluation and judgment of the individual location based on their needs, causing to the location and shape of frequent positive emotions within him, be it a product, a person’s behavior is influenced by the location.

Studies in this area have so far on the various factors that can be achieved in the three categories:

- Studies that pointed to the location features [7-9].

- Studies that have looked time of factors [4,10,11].

- Studies that rely on features of human [12-16].

Those studies have emphasized the characteristics of individual user’s show that is different the attachment location from person to person [13,17]. They choose Based on the deliberate preference, which is the characteristic of the person, and the places to be interested to it. Researchers have shown that forming individuals’ attachments to places affected by the individual characteristics of users [3,18] and is social knowledge, beliefs and attitudes individuals [19]. The explanation characteristics of the individual and their role in the interactions with location has been mentioned of various factors such as location, age, gender, income, marital status, education, social class and occupation [9,16,20].

So far, several researchers have tried to measure it with varying definitions and dimensions of attachment to place. Schreyer and his colleagues with the classification attachment to the emotional and functional [21] And Giuliani and Feldman including researchers could be named with regard to various aspects of cognitive, emotional and behavior [22] about of them . William and Vaske Research is the most important and most studies in this field that Design 15 statement in Likert type [23]. Because its validity has repeatedly been confirmed in similar studies has been based this research. With this difference that in this study, the test has been addressed behavioral dimensions of place attachment, sense of achievement, that, as a committed and responsible behavior in relation to its place. For example has been proposed in different studies the behavioral dimension of attachment to place, to respect the rules and restrictions in place [24], willingness to pay to maintain it [25] and behaviors committed by Members [26]. So when will be full assess the interests individuals the place That in addition an evaluation of the location, should be evaluated both emotional and cognitive, behavioral and motivational effects on the individual [27].

Therefore the existing literature in this field, define attachment to location the following four aspects that has been proposed statements based design and how to measure attachment to place:

- Emotional and feel with their own memories and his location in it.

- Function: to location the person depends on your needs and goes at it.

- Behavior: willingness to participate in and conduct held accountable in its location.

- Cognitive: distinctions physical features and location.

Materials and Methods

The literature review was conducted to measure user interest in the sample space, was designed a questionnaire comprising 15 statements in Likert type based on William U. study , First were put to the test with the participation of 50 civilians, Initial examination was changed the literature and how to the item described. Until most of the speech to establish a better relationship a Persian-speaking audience. It also reviewing the existing literature in this area, led to design of questionnaires, with a focus on four dimensions: functional, emotional, behavioral and cognitive in Table 1. In this study were interviewed a total of 598 persons, the users of Imam Street located in the city of Mahabad and was attempted various social groups to attend the random (Table 2). Independent variables in this study are including age, gender, education, marital status and occupation Volunteers that has been evaluation significant level on the dependent variable, users attached to the sample, and its four dimensions. The results of this research have been analyzed the software spss. And applying a different test, t - test and F - test.

Dimension statements
Functional I love places like Imam.
Another street does not prefer in Mahabad it.
I love my time in the streets.
The first is where I choose to get out of the house.
The emotional When I am here, if I'm at home
I have great memories of the Imam.
Imam Street is my favorite.
If possible be any day I came to the Imam.
People who are like me who went to the streets
Behavioral - I am willing to keep those costs.
- Willing to keep doing what it is that I do.
- I feel people here are better behavior and more respectful manner.
Cognitive - When I think of Mahabad The first place I recall Imam.
- Imam has all the qualities of a good street.
- What is the imam, has distinguished it, other than the streets of Mahabad.

Reference, Writers calculations

Table 1: Tales of the research questions.

  Mean Standard deviation Minimum Maximum Total
Age 27.94 11.326 14 80 598
Marital status .58 .494 - - 598
Sex .51 .500 - - 598
Education 12.70 3.030 - - 598
      0 20 598

Reference, Writers calculations

Table 2: Statistical characteristics of participants.

Imam Street, as a case study is one of the oldest streets in the city of Mahabad Which is located near the historic center of the city. The street now is as accumulation of space for residents, especially the youth, with various attractions: shopping, walking, leisure, and many of the key activities of the city, in terms of education, culture and health administration. This space has been selected the initial interview with the creation of citizens in different parts of the city, as the sample. At This stage was stationed the team consists of 5 people, 5 points the street and with the tenth person were conducted who has a desire to participate in research, personal interviews. Thus different sex and age groups participation have been that education levels and different jobs (Table 2).


In order to analyze the data were estimated the questionnaire Justifiability calculated with Crohn’s alpha Bach, that was result obtained with the 0/83, indicating the validity of the questionnaire designed to measure the dependent variable. After this step, in order to compare and analyze the results were calculated the average interest rate of separation of the different groups of participants that it will continue. It should be noted that due to statistical tables and analyzes were carried out only in the content is important consequences There are only a part of it.

In factor analysis user status the results suggests that the level of interest in all its aspects are different the two married and singles. Compare the differences, indicating that it is, however, a single users group have expressed more interested in the behavioral and cognitive aspects, only is seen slight difference both functional and emotional. Table 3 shows that despite the differences there is the only significant difference (significance =. /012) between the two groups in the behavioral dimension (T = 2/510).

Dimension F T DF sig Mean Difference Std. Error Difference 95% Confidence Interval of the Difference
Functional 1.673 -.240 590 .810 -.4148 .17261 Lower Upper
-.38049 .29752
The emotional .845 -1.437 592 .151 -.2052 .14287 -.48586 .7532
Behavioral 1.691 2.510 590 .012 .4160 .16575 .9046 .74153
Cognitive .583 1.835 590 .067 .2956 .16108 .02073 .61200
Attachment to the place 4.975 .648 592 .517 .08696 .13416 .17652 .35044

Reference, Writers calculations

Table 3: Results of t-test in the evaluate the relationship between marital status and level of attachment.

Next, was evaluated the relationship between gender and level of user Interest in all aspects of cognitive, emotional, and behavioral function through t - test. The result shows that although women have shown in reports are more Interest but is not observed significant correlation between gender and Interest, (Table 4). In addition, analysis of variance (F - test) was employed to evaluate users’ job role include groups: self-employed, government, teachers, professors, engineers, retirees, students, workers, housewives. Comparison results show housewives, among other groups, have more Interest to the places studied; which result is also tangible in both functional and cognitive. But the emotional dimension, students have shown more Interest. But at this stage is achieved an interesting result that is significant relationship (significant =./008) between workers and behavioral attachment to place (Table 5).

Dimension F T DF sig Mean Difference Std. Error Difference Confidence Interval of the Difference 95%
              Lower Upper
Functional 446/0 306/1- 590 192/0 22196/0- 17001/0 55586/0- 11193/0
The emotional 886/0 253/0- 592 800/0 03572/0- 14124/0 31311/0- 14167/0
Behavioral 243/0 - 017/1 590 309/0 16705/0 16421/0 - 48955/0 15545/0
Cognitive 977/1 533/1 590 126/0 24380/0 15901/0 - 55609/0 06850/0
Attachment to the place 851/2 262/1 592 207/0 16692/0 13227/0 - 42671/0 09286/0

Table 4: Results of T-test to evaluate the relationship between marital status and level of attachment.

  Total Standard deviation median F - Test Significance level
Functional 513/66 11 047/6 423/1 158/0
The emotional 139/45 11 120/4 404/1 167/0
Behavioral 832/100 11 167/9 355/2 008/0
Cognitive 728/58 11 339/5 435/1 153/0
Attachment to the place 186/42 11 835/3 488/1 131/0

Table 5: Results of F-test - a test to evaluate the relationship between job and individual of attachment.

In the last step was evaluated the relationship between two variables age and education, with variable attachment to the place, through Pearson correlation test (Table 6). As can be seen in Table 2 there is the only significant direct relationship between age and attachment to place its behavioral aspect.

  Functional The emotional Behavioral Cognitive Attachment to the place
Age Pearson correlation 026/0- 017/0- *135/0 38/0 25/0
Significance level 524/0 671/0 001/0 360/0 540/0
Education Pearson correlation 056/0- *99/0- 035/0- 060/0- *83/0-
Significance level 176/0 016/0 401/0 148/0 043/0

Table 6: Results of the correlation between the variables of education and age with attachment to place.

It can be seen the variable education, and a significant indirect relationship between of attachment rates and education users. Moreover, is reduced with the increase in users education the emotional attachment to the sample space (significant =./016).


As was mentioned in the literature review of demographic characteristics and their role in the of attachment to place, has been the subject of various studies. And so far, have been reported variables such as gender, age, income, marital status, social class, education and occupation as determinants in this regard [10,16,20]. The study also tested the sample space. As a first result, comparison of the results of the analysis, reflecting the fact that are Single users, older people, women and labor groups, compared with the other groups, feel more of attachment to the case . As can be noted that the most significant finding in the study area has been education level users only determining factor in the amount of attachment them. Moreover despite some studies pointed the gender factor and its role in attachment to place, in the case study has not been observed such results, in conjunction with the attachment sites .This results is also true for users in variable marital status. Also although some studies have emphasized the jobs in this area, weren’t found a significant relationship between this variable and attachment to place in the study. Meanwhile, variable of education has meaningful relationship with sense of attachment with this explanation has fallen the increased user education the rate of interest to a sample space It is also seen its emotional dimension.


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Citation: Houshyar H, Abdollahpouri M (2013) Assessment Sense of Place, Citizens of Urban Public Space, with Emphasis on the Street a Case Study, Imam Street Mahabad. J Geogr Nat Disast 3: 109.

Copyright: © 2013 Houshyar H, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.