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A Brief Note on Dendritic Cells: Antigen-Presenting Cells
Journal of Clinical and Cellular Immunology

Journal of Clinical and Cellular Immunology
Open Access

ISSN: 2155-9899

Commentary - (2021)Volume 12, Issue 7

A Brief Note on Dendritic Cells: Antigen-Presenting Cells

Carolin Brandl*
 
*Correspondence: Carolin Brandl, Laboratory of Immunology and Vascular Biology, Department of Pathology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA, Email:

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Description

Dendritic cells (DCs) are antigen-presenting cells (also called accent cells) of the class system. Their main operate is to method substance material and gift it on the cell surface to the T cells of the system. They act as messengers between the innate and also the adaptive immune systems.

Dendritic cells are gift in those tissues that are in reality with the external surroundings, like the skin (where there's a specialized nerve fiber cell kind referred to as the Langerhans cell) and also the inner lining of the nose, lungs, abdomen and intestines. They’ll even be found in Associate in nursing immature state within the blood. Once activated, they migrate to the bodily fluid nodes wherever they act with T cells and B cells to initiate and form the adaptive reaction. At bound development stages they grow branched projections, the dendrites that provide the cell its name. Whereas similar in look, these are structures distinct from the dendrites of neurons. Immature nerve fiber cells are referred to as veiled cells, as they possess giant protoplasm 'veils' instead of dendrites.

The blood DCs are generally known and enumerated in flow cytometer. 3 varieties of DCs are outlined in human blood: the CD1c+ myeloid DCs, the CD141+ myeloid DCs and also the CD303+ plasmacytoid DCs. This represents the word projected by the word committee of the International Union of medical specialty Societies. Nerve fiber cells for blood flow don't have all the standard options of their counterparts in tissue, i.e. they're less mature and don't have any dendrites. Still, they'll perform advanced functions as well as chemokine-production (in CD1c+ myeloid DCs), cross-presentation (in CD141+ myeloid DCs), and IFNalpha production (in CD303+ plasmacytoid DCs).

Formation and maturation of immature cells

Dendritic cells square measure derived from hemopoietic bone marrow root cells. These root cells initio rework into immature nerve fiber cells. These cells square measure characterized by high endocytic activity and low T-cell activation potential. Immature nerve fiber cells perpetually sample the encircling surroundings for pathogens like viruses and microorganism. This is often done through Pattern Recognition Receptors (PRRs) like the Toll-Like Receptors (TLRs). TLRs acknowledge specific chemical signatures found on subsets of pathogens. Immature nerve fiber cells involved in phagocytosis of membrane from live own cells, during a method known as nibbling. Once they need inherit contact with a respectable matter, they become activated into mature nerve fiber cells and start to migrate to a lymphoid tissue. Immature nerve fiber cells phagocytosis pathogens and degrades their proteins into little items and upon maturation gifts those fragments at their cell surface victimization MHC molecules. At the same time, they unregulated cell-surface receptors that act as co-receptors in T-cell activation like CD80 (B7.1), CD86 (B7.2), and CD40 greatly enhance their ability to activate T-cells. They conjointly up regulate CCR7, a chemotactic receptor that induces the nerve fiber cell to travel through the blood stream to the spleen or through the system lymphatic to a lymphoid tissue. Here they act as antigenpresenting cells: they activate helper T-cells and killer T-cells furthermore as B-cells by presenting them with antigens derived from the infectious agent, aboard non-antigen specific stimulatory signals. Nerve fiber cells can even induce T-cell tolerance (unresponsiveness). Bound C-type glycoprotein receptors (CLRs) on the surface of nerve fiber cells, some functioning as PRRs, facilitate instruct nerve fiber cells on once it's applicable to induce immune tolerance instead of white cell activation.

Author Info

Carolin Brandl*
 
Laboratory of Immunology and Vascular Biology, Department of Pathology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA
 

Citation: Brandl C (2021) A Brief Note on Dendritic cells: Antigen-Presenting Cells. J Clin Cell Immunol 12:635.

Received: 01-Oct-2021 Published: 22-Oct-2021, DOI: 10.35248/2155-9899.21.12.635

Copyright: © 2021 Brandl C. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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