Gingivitis: An Inflammation of the Gums Caused by Bacterial Infection
Annals and Essences of Dentistry

Annals and Essences of Dentistry
Open Access

ISSN: 0975-8798, 0976-156X

Short Communication - (2022)Volume 14, Issue 1

Gingivitis: An Inflammation of the Gums Caused by Bacterial Infection

Jerem Smith*
*Correspondence: Jerem Smith, Department of Dentistry and Dental Prosthodontics, University of Siena, Siena, Italy, Email:

Author info »


Gingivitis is a non-destructive periodontal disease that produces gum inflammation. Plaque-induced gingivitis is the most prevalent form of gingivitis, and the most frequent form of periodontal disease in general, caused by bacterial biofilms adhered to tooth surfaces. The majority of cases of gingivitis are caused by plaque. Periodontitis is invariably preceded by gingivitis, even if some cases of gingivitis never progress to periodontitis. Gingivitis symptoms are nonspecific and express themselves in the gum tissue as the traditional indicators of inflammation. When the gum tissue becomes swollen and stretched over the inflamed underlying connective tissue, the stippling that is ordinarily present in the gum tissue of certain people disappears. It's also possible that the buildup will emit an unpleasant stench. When the gingiva swell, the epithelial lining of the gingival fissure becomes ulcerated, and even light brushing, and especially flossing, causes the gums to bleed more easily.


Gingivitis; Periodontal disease; Inflammation


Gingivitis can be reversed with proper oral care; but, if left untreated, gingivitis can proceed to periodontitis, a condition in which gum inflammation leads to tissue death and bone resorption around the teeth. Periodontitis can lead to tooth loss in the long run. Gingivitis bacteria may be connected to Alzheimer's disease, according to a recent study. More research is needed to confirm a cause and effect relationship, according to scientists. In mice, researchers discovered that the bacteria P. gingivalis, which causes many types of gum disease, can travel from the mouth to the brain. P. gingivalis can also duplicate all of the symptoms of Alzheimer's disease once it enters the brain. Plaque-induced gingivitis is caused by bacterial plaque, which triggers the body's host response. This, in turn, can lead to gingival tissue destruction, which can lead to periodontal attachment apparatus destruction. Plaque collects in small spaces between teeth, gingival grooves, and plaque traps, which serve to collect and maintain plaque. Plaque traps include restorative margins that are thick and overhanging, clasps on removable partial dentures, and calculus that accumulates on teeth. The bacteria in these accumulations create substances such as degradative enzymes and toxins such as lipopolysaccharide or lipoteichoic acid, which cause an inflammatory response in the gum tissue, despite their small size [1-4].

An expansion of the gingiva and subsequent formation can result from this inflammation. In good health, early plaque is dominated by Gram-positive cocci and rods, and it is a very simple bacterial community. The communities of Gram-negative rods, fusiform, filaments, spirilla, and spirochetes become more complex as plaque matures and gingivitis develops. Later experimental gingivitis research that used culture yielded greater information about the individual bacterial species found in plaque. Clinical assessment data obtained during a full periodontal exam is used to make the diagnosis. The thorough periodontal exam can be performed by either a certified dental hygienist or a dentist, but the dentist is responsible for data interpretation and diagnosis. The comprehensive periodontal exam includes a visual examination, a series of radiographs, gingiva probing, evaluating the extent of present or previous periodontal damage, and a thorough assessment of the patient's medical and dental histories.


Regular dental hygiene, such as brushing and flossing every day, can help to prevent gingivitis. Mouthwashes containing hydrogen peroxide, saline, alcohol, or chlorhexidine may also be used. The positive effect of hydrogen peroxide on gingivitis was noted in clinical research. Gingivitis can be prevented by using an oral irrigator and mouthwash containing an antibiotic on a daily basis. When compared to hand brushing, the usage of oscillation type brushes may minimize the incidence of gingivitis. The goal of therapy is to reduce oral bacteria, and it might take the form of regular dental visits combined with proper oral hygiene at home. Scaling, root planning, curettage, mouth washes containing chlorhexidine or hydrogen peroxide, and flossing are some of the procedures used to prevent gingivitis that can also be used to treat visible gingivitis. Interdental brushes also aid in the removal of any harmful chemicals.


Author Info

Jerem Smith*
Department of Dentistry and Dental Prosthodontics, University of Siena, Siena, Italy

Citation: Smith J (2022) Gingivitis: An Inflammation of the Gums Caused by Bacterial Infection. Ann Essence Dent. 14:216.

Received: 03-Feb-2022, Manuscript No. AEDJ-22-16291; Editor assigned: 07-Feb-2022, Pre QC No. AEDJ-22-16291 (PQ); Reviewed: 21-Feb-2022, QC No. AEDJ-22-16291; Revised: 28-Feb-2022, Manuscript No. AEDJ-22-16291 (R); Published: 07-Mar-2022, DOI: 10.35248/ 0975-8798.22.14.216

Copyright: © 2022 Smith J. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited


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