Cause of HIV in Children and Antiretroviral Therapy Importance
Advances in Pediatric Research

Advances in Pediatric Research
Open Access

ISSN: 2385-4529

Short Communication - (2022)Volume 9, Issue 2

Cause of HIV in Children and Antiretroviral Therapy Importance

Athanasios Michos*
*Correspondence: Athanasios Michos, Department of Medicine, University of British Columbia, St. Paul's Hospital, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, Email:

Author info »


The transmission of HIV in kids is generally from parent who has given birth to them, the infection might happen in the stomach, during labor, or while breastfeeding. Treatment is same for children with HIV is antiretroviral treatment. Assuming a newborn child has an extreme instance of HIV, the death takes places in months even with treatment, the probability of death drops rapidly, and the drawn out hazard is low. This article will take a glimpse at the transmission, manifestations, conclusion, and treatment of HIV. HIV is an infection that damages the resistant frame, hindering the body's capacity to battle infections and malignant growth. Since children don't have completely evolved insusceptibility, those with HIV become more seriously sick from normal pediatric infections than the individuals who are HIV negative [1].

Since they can't combat diseases well, children with HIV regularly show the following infections:

• Ear infection

• Sinus infection

• Pneumonia

• Digestive ailment

• Sepsis, a blood infection

Skin infections

• Meningitis, aggravation of the membrane covering the cerebrum and spinal rope


Pregnant women with HIV can spread the infection to the infant. Transmission from a parent with HIV to an infant may likewise happen during gestation (from placenta) or birth or from breastfeeding. Specialists indicate that these three courses of HIV spread as perinatal transmission. Essentially all children contract HIV through with these transmissions, child brought into the world from woman with HIV will get the virus to their child. Few numbers of children gets HIV through contaminated blood. Because of routine screening that started present, the danger of transmission through blood is currently exceptionally low [2].

Normal signs of HIV in infants and children

Appearing in lacking of weight gain and bone development, Enlarged lymph hubs, enlarged liver or spleen, and parasitic disease in the mouth called oral thrush, pneumonia. Newborn children get a HIV determination when blood tests positive for the infection. When embryos create inside the stomach, they get nutrition from the pregnant parent through the placenta. Assuming the pregnant parent has HIV, the placenta likewise moves HIV antibodies to the baby. Therefore, all newborn children from a parent with HIV will test positive for the antibodies upon entering the world.

Treatment and the executives

The standard treatment for HIV is ART (Antiretroviral Therapy). Professionals suggest this for individuals of any age, including youngsters. Specialists suggest early treatment, as it can support kids with better lives [3].

Children who contract HIV in the placenta or during birth have a more infection then who contract it during breastfeeding. They need ART quickly to prevent from death.

Obtainability and effective use of several antiretroviral drugs has changed HIV/AIDS from an incurable to a correctable chronic condition. The antiretroviral therapy can effectively defeat viral repetition and preserve the immune system of children for many years. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) in children has so many problems; use of suitable formulations, steady need for alteration of doses as the child grows, adherence issues, etc. To reduce death rate and infection in HIV infected children, it is recommended that all HIV infected children less than 2 years should receive ART; in older children the suggestions are grounded on clinical or immunological criteria. Highly dynamic antiretroviral therapy schedules at least 3 antiretroviral drugs. The first therapy advised for children is a blend of two nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor and nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. Toddlers who have had contact to nevirapine must receive a combination of two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and a protease inhibitor; the protease inhibitor of optimal is ritonavir boosted lopinavir. The success of therapy is dependent on better than 95% adherence.

Discovered that soon after the accessibility of ART, the danger of death declined enormously. The probability of curing initially low for many months after the beginning of ART in small children with serious HIV. After this period, the rate of death decrease rapidly, and the drawn out of hazard is low. The world means to defeat mother-to-children transmission of HIV, consequently spreading out kid instances of HIV and consequently the requirement for pediatric details. This might be seen to fundamentally lessen the need for new substitute pediatric ART plans. Although the end to pediatric HIV is a common objective among medical services suppliers, drug organizations, and NGOs all over the world. For the time being, a huge number of kids are living with this disease. Also, an extensive number of kids are yet incapable to get to these prescriptions [4].


Many elements keep on driving the requirement for pediatric ART. The danger of perinatal transmission stays at 2%, when pregnant women is on ART, has a low possibility to transfer virus, when they follows the suggested treatment routine, and doesn't breastfeed to their child. Although clinical trials are undergoing but there is no vaccines yet discovered. HIV can make children weak to fight against other infections, so it is recommended to take vaccines against other diseases like: Varicella, Hepatitis B, Influenza, Measles, mumps, and rubella.


Author Info

Athanasios Michos*
Department of Medicine, University of British Columbia, St. Paul's Hospital, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada

Citation: Michos A (2022) Cause of HIV in Children and Antiretroviral Therapy Importance. Adv Pediatr Res. 09:025

Received: 01-Mar-2022, Manuscript No. LDAPR-22-16030; Editor assigned: 03-Mar-2022, Pre QC No. LDAPR-22-16030 (PQ); Reviewed: 16-Mar-2022, QC No. LDAPR-22-16030; Revised: 22-Mar-2022, Manuscript No. LDAPR-22-16030 (R); Published: 31-Mar-2022 , DOI: 10.35248/2385-4529.22.09.025

Copyright: © 2022 Michos A. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.