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Plant sources of protein are the most appropriate alternative for Fish Meal (FM) for preparation of fish diet. Therefore, plant protein is the lower price, greater availability and improved consistency of composition. Compared to fish meal, they vary in their nutrition and biological values and lower palatability. In order to improve nutritional quality of plant protein sources by using processing technologies such as Solid state fermentation has been considered for the production of enzymes, antibiotics, extrusion cooking, other value-added products to produce high quality aquatic feeds. Besides that, biotechnology to get better safety, freshness, color, flavor, texture, taste, nutritional characteristics and shelf-life of cultured food products. In addition, mixed feeding from plant protein source in which high protein diet is alternated by a low protein diet could result in improved nutrient utilization. Thus, to take practical and possible measure in order to enhance nutritional quality of plant protein sources by using extrusion cooking processing, genetically modified, biotechnology, feed additives, nano-particles and solid state fermentation technologies. Hence, the issue of cheaper sources of plant protein feed ingredients would be requisite to fully replace fish meal for the improvement and sustainable of fishery industry in developing countries.
Published Date: 2022-09-27; Received Date: 2022-08-25