Indian tribes’ also known as aboriginal communities or adivasi are residing in forests since time immemorial. There are nearly 10.40 million tribal people residing on 15 percent of total Indian geography and constitutes 8.60 percent of the total population. Forest and tribals are culturally and traditionally linked to each other. Most of them live in close proximity of forest depending on the forest for livelihood and substances. In spite of pursuing rapid economic growth for more than five decades India since Independence, the objective of poverty eradication has not been significantly achieved. The prevailing situation of hunger, poverty and deprivation experienced by Western Ghats tribals as well as general population, the confronting historical and economic data perspective shows that development strategy that has been persuaded post-independence has not been effective. The issues of livelihood are predominantly addressed in economical, political and pragmatic activities that rely upon the development of tribals, irrespective of their place of residence. There is a strong ethos of livelihood perspective, majority of the Indian tribes are heading towards insecurity. Many literatures ensure that, the sustainability of land and forest resources, thereby improving land quality and making more productive and stately livelihood better than income in tribals. There is paucity of literature, the tribal livelihood development programmes would not be taken up by concerned ministry. In this summing of the research gap, the present study attempts to address the livelihood status of tribals in Western Ghats. The research findings revealed that, the elevated poverty only has an effect on becoming homeless for tribal primitive groups. Perhaps this reflects the tendency of lack of literacy for younger population and also lagged from political, economical and social empowerment. The stronger social network aggregated in tribal as compared with general population, which can act as protective factor.
Published Date: 2020-08-21; Received Date: 2020-07-29