There are various methods of treatment of closed diaphyseal fractures of femur in children, but historically the vast majority of fractures of femur in children have been treated with hip spica casting alone or with initial traction followed by hip spica cast and each method has particular indications, contraindications and complications that must be considered in choosing the optimal treatment for a particular child and his/her fracture. Whatever the treatment method used we report a comparative study of thirty children aged from 6 months to ten years of age presenting with diaphyseal fractures of femur. Out of these thirty children, fifteen were treated with hip spica cast application and other fifteen children were treated with initial skin traction followed by hip spica cast. Hip spica cast has the additional advantages of being economical to the patients and the hospital services. It spares number of available beds in the hospital and is more convenient and comfortable for parents and children. Whereas initial traction followed by hip spica cast is better method of treatment in cases when there is a risk of excessive shortening. This study showed almost comparable results in the above mentioned two methods of treatment and final outcome in most of the cases was satisfactory.