Healthy Aging Research
ISSN: 2261-7434

The influences of family interaction and spiritual well-being on anxiety and depression among older adults in the United States

Abstract

Pi-Ming Yeh

Background: Living with anxiety and depression is a very real and palpable experience for many older adults in the modern day. Facing these conditions as an individual on a day to day basis can be overbearing and relentless. Subjectively one can imagine how difficult either of these conditions can be to face as well as seek aid for. The purpose of this study was to examine the influences of past family interactions related to child rearing techniques as well as current experiences of spiritual well-being on the older adults’ anxiety and depression.

Methods: This was a cross sectional, descriptive design. Total 448 older adults were recruited from the community in the US. The mean age was 71.33 (SD=7.61). There were 41.1% Male (n=184) and 58.9% Female (n=264). The structured questionnaires were used to do the data collection. The SPSS 23 version was used to do the data analysis. The descriptive data analysis, Pearson Correlation, and Step-wise Multiple Regressions were used to solve the research questions.

Results: Older adults whose parents used child monitor (r=-0.211, p=0.000), inductive reasoning (r=-0.116, p=0.015), communication (r=-0.145, p=0.002), involvement (r=-0.169, p=0.000) and positive family interaction (r=-0.210, p=0.000) had lower scores of anxiety. Older adults whose parents used inconsistent discipline (r=0.185, p=0.000), harsh discipline (r=0.245, p=0.000) and negative family interaction (r=0.290, p=0.000) had higher scores of anxiety. Older adults whose parents used child monitor (r=-0.279, p=0.000), inductive reasoning (r=-0.190, p=0.000), communication (r=-0.196, p=0.000), involvement (r=-0.208, p=0.000) and positive family interaction (r=-0.280, p=0.000) had lower scores of depression. Older adults whose parents used inconsistent discipline (r=0.182, p=0.000), harsh discipline (r=0.292, p=0.000) and negative family interaction (r=0.322, p=0.000) had higher scores of depression. Older adults who had higher scores of spiritual wellbeing (r=-0.518, p=0.000), higher scores of faith/belief (r=-0.373, p=0.000), life and self-responsibility (r=-0.418, p=0.000), and higher scores of life satisfaction and self-actualization (r=-0.492, p=0.000) had lower scores of anxiety. Older adults who had higher scores of spiritual well-being (r=-0.597, p=0.000), higher scores of faith/belief (r=-0.434, p=0.000), life and selfresponsibility (r=-0.412, p=0.000), and higher scores of life satisfaction and self-actualization (r=-0.623, p=0.000) had lower scores of depression. There was a statistically significant positive relationship between anxiety and depression (r=0.734, p=0.000).

Conclusions: The predictors of older adults’ anxiety were negative family interaction, their parents using a child monitor, their spiritual well-being and faith/belief. The predictors of older adults’ depression were negative family interaction, their parents using a child monitor, their life satisfaction/ self-actualization and life/self-responsibility. Older adults who had higher scores of experienced negative family interaction had higher scores of anxiety and depression. Older adults who had higher scores of spiritual well-being (including life satisfaction/ self-actualization and life/self-responsibility) and higher scores of experienced child monitor had lower scores of anxiety and depression.

Share this article