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Michelle Cho, Adriana Contreras, Ashley Garza, Samantha Olvera, David Castillo, Gabriel de Erausquin and Chun Xu
Objective: Schizophrenia, a neuropsychiatric disorder, is known to be neurodevelopmentally progressive. Due to the extensive interindividual variability found in the responses of patients, management of schizophrenia has proven to be challenging. This interindividual variability to treatment could be justified by the variation of the enzymes in charge of metabolizing medications, especially those associated with cytochrome P450. Since genetic factors influence the phenotypic responses to drugs, researchers are involved in identifying schizophrenic genetic factors, which could impact responses and severe effects for commonly known neuroleptic drugs known as pharmacogenetics. In order to predict drug response at the personal level, genetic variants that determine drug effects need to be identified.
Methods: We have chosen to investigate gene targets for risperidone and clozapine, two commonly administered drugs for the treatment of schizophrenia. The aim of this review is to contribute in the understanding of genetic influences on drug responses of risperidone and clozapine in schizophrenia. We reviewed original primary research articles, meta-analysis, and review publications on drug and gene interaction on the treatment of schizophrenia. Our main findings focused on schizophrenia, pharmacogenetics and cytochrome P450.
Results and conclusion: After filtering our results to human species and English language, a total of 45 scientific articles were used for this review. A promising direction for future research in schizophrenia treatment lies behind the identification of the specific genetic contributors that affect drug response.