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Artemisia, being the largest and widely distributed genus of the plant family Asteraceae encompasses more than 400 species. Some popular species are reported to possess several medicinal properties owing to the rich phytochemical diversity. Altogether, eight thirty-nine chemical constituents including volatile and non-volatile compounds in these species are listed together with their references. These have been categorized into phenylpropanoids, flavonoids, terpenes, sterols, lignans, phenolics, fatty acids, fatty esters hydrocarbons and miscellaneous compounds, many of which are responsible for various biological activities such as analgesic, anti-parasitic, anti-inflammatory, hypolipidemic, antinociceptive, anti-microbial, anti-oxidant, hepato-protective, antiulcerogenic, anti-malarial, anti-leishmanial, anti-cancer, anti-tumor, anti-diabetic, anticonvulsant, anti-promastigote, anti-convulsant, anxiolytic and anti-depressant. The traditional uses and recent advances in the field of phytochemistry of selected Artemisia species and their respective medicinal, insecticidal and nutritional properties, for the period up to 2017, are assessed and compiled in this paper. Meticulous phytochemical and pharmacological studies on Artemisia species and their sustainable conservation will yield reliable molecules of pharmacological importance, for better healthcare.