Stephen J. Ralph, Ian Clark
Part II of this three-part review examines the evidence for the involvement of the pro-inflammatory cytokine, Tumour Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNFα) in neuropathologies with a particular focus on Alzheimer’s Dementia (AD). It helps to underpin the support for Part III – establishing the basis for using anti-TNF therapy and why it is justified to target and treat these health problems, including chronic stroke, dementias, neuropathic pain or traumatic brain injury. All of these can become chronic illnesses and are of major incidence with a grossly unmet need to improve their treatment. Part I established the role of TNFα as a direct regulator of neuronal synaptic activity. It is in this context that Part II analyses abnormalities in TNF levels associated with disease, using AD as an example of the consequence that can arise from TNF-induced changes in the brain. Parts I and II then provide support for clinical application of anti-TNF therapy, which is discussed in Part III not only for treating the dementias, but also its great benefits in reducing long-term pain during rehabilitation from traumatic brain injury or chronic stroke, areas where Perispinal Etanercept therapy holds special significance.