Soil organic carbon (SOC) in the temperate forests of the Himalayas is important to estimate their contribution to regional, national and global carbon stocks. This information however is poor and fragmented in regards to the western Himalayas of India. No published information is available on SOC stock in this region. Carbon stocks were assessed at different soil depths (0-10, 10-20 and 20-30 cm) in Pinus wallichiana (PW) and Abies pindrow (AP) forest types in the western Kashmir Himalayas of India. SOC stocks in these temperate forests were relatively low ranging from 50.37 to 55.38 Mg C ha-1 in the top 30 cm of soils. Significantly greater SOC stock was observed in PW forest type compared to AP forest type. Tree density, shrub density, shrub biomass, herb biomass and forest floor litter were greater in the PW forest type as compared to AP forest type, which could be the reason for greater accumulation of organic carbon in soil. The present study revealed that tree species composition and its associated underground vegetation alter SOC accumulation in the moist temperate forest ecosystems. In addition, environmental parameters such as soil moisture and soil biological activity change soil carbon sequestration potential in moist temperate forest ecosystems.