Biochemistry & Pharmacology: Open Access

Biochemistry & Pharmacology: Open Access
Open Access

ISSN: 2167-0501



Sodium, Potassium, Calcium and Copper Levels in Seminal Plasma are Associated with Sperm Quality in Fertile and Infertile Men

Abdul-Wahab R Hamad, Hala I Al-Daghistani, Walid D Shquirat, Muna Abdel-Dayem and Mohammad Al-Swaifi

Concentrations of Sodium (Na), Potassium (K), Calcium (Ca) and Copper (Cu) in the semen of infertile male with and without varicocele in relation to serum steroid hormones, spermato¬zoa quality were evaluated. The study group comprised of 300 males, 102(34%) with varicocele, 123(41%) without varicocele, and 75(25%) fertile control groups which were randomly selected. Seminal analysis was performed (including volume, sperm count, motility, viscosity, viability and morphology) with biochemical measurements of fructose and mixed agglutination reaction (MAR) for ASA. Atomic absorption was used to estimate the level of Cu, and flame photometer for Na, K and Ca in seminal plasma. Serum levels of progesterone and testosterone were estimated using a competitive chemoluminescent enzyme immunoassay. A significant difference in sperm viscosity, sluggish and immotile sperms, progesterone was appeared among infertile males with and without varicocele in comparison to fertile groups. Despite the significant decreases of semen K and Ca among infertile male (with and without varicocele) in comparison with fertile (p<0.05), the mean Na and Cu concentrations were none significantly between groups. Potassium concentration was highly significant with abnormal testosterone level (p=0.001) and Cu concentration was highly significant with abnormal progesterone level (p=0.001). Furthermore, calcium level was significantly increased (p=0.001) with sluggish and immotile sperms, sperm account, fructose and ASA among normal and abnormal cases. Cu level appeared to be decreased in fertile male compared to infertile male with and without varicocele. Yet, the proportion of abnormality in fructose and % ASA is increased with increasing Cu levels in seminal plasma, whereas low level of Cu showed a negative effect on seminal fluid volume, morphology and sperm count. It is suggested that seminal plasma K and Cu exert particular effects on steroid hormone and semen quality. However, measurement of seminal plasma trace elements may serve as an accurate parameter to evaluate male fertility since they are correlated with the disturbance of semen parameters especially sperm motility, volume, count and viability.