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Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between sleep bruxism and orthodontic treatment in children and adolescents.
Methods: Analysis was performed both before and during such treatment. A retrospective cross-sectional study was undertaken in two groups of seven to 15-year-old patients from the orthodontic clinic of a public university in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. The first group contained 22 patients with a mean age of ten years (SD = 2.058) who were awaiting orthodontic treatment. The second group contained 44 patients with a mean age of nine years (SD = 1.79) undergoing orthodontic treatment. Data collection was performed using a questionnaire completed by parents/caregivers and data from the medical records of the clinic. Diagnosis of bruxism was determined in accordance with American Academy of Sleep Medicine criteria. Descriptive analysis and Chi-square test were used for statistical analysis.
Results: Sleep bruxism was observed in 27.3% of patients who were awaiting orthodontic treatment. Regarding the group undergoing treatment, 36.4% had sleep bruxism prior to the start of treatment and 25% continued to suffer from the Para function following placement of an orthodontic appliance. Among those who had sleep bruxism before treatment, 75% reported that the Para function ceased after placement of the appliance. There was an association between the presence of sleep bruxism among parents/ caregivers and among patients (p = 0.035). Interceptive orthodontics was associated in 77% of sleep bruxism stop during treatment (p = 0.029). The corrective orthodontics was in 22.8% patients with sleep bruxism only after fitting orthodontic appliance compared to 9% with interceptive orthodontic treatment (p = 0.002).
Conclusion: There was an association between sleep bruxism in parents/caregivers and the presence of the Para function among children/adolescents. The type of orthodontic treatment influenced the time that sleep bruxism appeared. The interceptive orthodontic treatment was associated with the cases which sleep bruxism stopped during treatment.