Yayah Emerencia Ngah, Federick Nchang Cho, Bisong Shauna Etagha, Ngu Felix Akum, Njimona Ibrahim
Introduction: The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is a virus that gradually attacks the immune system, which is our body’s natural defense against illness. Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) changed the course of the HIV epidemic when in 1996, as part of potent combination therapy [often referred to as Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART)]; they were able to extend significantly life span of those living with HIV. Our study aimed at assessing the predisposing and risk factors of hyperglycemia in HIV patients in a rural district hospital in Cameroon.
Methods: A cross sectional hospital-based study was carried out on 110 HIV patients, 14 males and 96 females. The ages of participants ranged from 22-71 years, with a mean age of 42 years. Capillary blood sample was collected from each patient by means of finger prick and the Fasting Blood Sugar (FBS) level measured using a glucometer. The
glucometer was calibrated using glucose oxidase reagent method. Hyperglycemia was defined as FBS>110 mg/dL. Fasting Blood Sugar levels ranged from 52-175 mg/dL with mean FBS of 108.9 mg/dL.
Results: Hyperglycemia varied significantly with low BMI (p=0.008). Male gender (OR 1.7) and those with CD4 counts less than 500 cells/mm3 (OR 2.1) are more likely to develop hyperglycemia than the female gender and those with CD4 greater than 500 cells/mm3 respectively. A majority of the study participants, 73(66.4%) had CD4 count
less than 500, 37(33.6%) had counts more than 500. 79(71.8%) of participants have been on treatment for less than 5 years while 31(28.2) have been on treatment for more than 5 years. Minority, 2(1.8%) of the study participants were alcoholics and 108(98.2%) were non alcoholics. Only 1(0.9%) participant was a smoker and 109(99.1%) non- smokers. Majority, 56(50.9%) of participants were on Tenofovir/Lamivudine. 82(74.5%) participants had BMI less than 25 while 28(25.5%) had BMI more than 25.
Conclusion: The results of this study suggested the need to promote blood sugar screening in patients when diagnosed of HIV and regular screening within the course of treatment.
Published Date: 2021-01-12; Received Date: 2020-12-22