Joanna Szczepanek, Joanna Laskowska, Jan StyczyÃ Âski, Andrzej Tretyn
Genome and transcriptome profiling methods are increasingly used in studies of pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML). AML can be distinguished from acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) on the basis of gene expression profiles; so too can the various subclasses of these two forms be further distinguished and genetically characterized. Genome-wide analysis studies (GWAS) have also contributed to new insights into the biological basis of the mechanisms of drug resistance, and allow the identification of new prognostic factors and the potential for targeted therapy. On the basis of changes in gene expression level, it is also possible to predict the risk of early recurrence and prognosis at the time of diagnosis of de novo leukemia. Although the possibility to analyze gene expression profiles already presents significant progress in our understanding of the complex pathobiology of pediatric AML, the introduction of new microarrays formats, such as CGH, SNP, CpG islands or antibodies, should be considered to build a complete picture of the cells in this form of cancer.