Caffeine is the most widely used psychotropic drug in the world. Most of the caffeine consumed comes from coffee bean (i.e., a misnomer for the seed of Coffee plants), beverages (i.e., coffee, tea, soft drinks), in products containing cocoa or chocolate and in medications (i.e., analgesics, stimulants, weight-loss products, sports nutrition). The most prominent behavioral effects of caffeine take place over low to moderate doses are amplified alertness and attention. Moderate caffeine consumption leads very rarely to health risks. Higher doses of caffeine encourage negative effects such as anxiety, insomnia, restlessness and tachycardia. The habitual use of caffeine causes physical dependence that displays as caffeine withdrawal symptoms that harm normal functioning. Contrariwise, rarely high doses of caffeine can encourage psychotic and manic symptoms usually, sleep disturbances and anxiety. Even though caffeine does not engender life-threatening health difficulties frequently related to the utilization of drugs of addiction, for example amphetamine, cocaine and heroin, an incrementing number of clinical studies are exhibiting that some caffeine users become dependent on the drug and are unable to reduce consumption despite knowledge of recurrent health complications linked to constant use. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition (DSM-5), includes caffeine addiction and withdrawal as mental disorders. The World Health Organization (WHO) identifies caffeine dependence as a clinical disorder. Furthermore, diagnosis process of caffeine dependence syndrome is accepted by International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th revision (ICD-10). Therefore the intention of this study was to analyze the neuropsychological effects of caffeine and try to assess in which respect caffeine could be considered a potential drug of addiction.