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Eric Vancauwenberghe, Hélène Lallet-Daher, Sandra Derouiche, Pascal Mariot, Pierre Gosset, Philippe Delcourt, Brigitte Mauroy, Jean-Louis Bonnal, Laurent Allart, Natalia Prevarskaya and Morad Roudbaraki
Objective: Endothelin-1 (ET-1), a potent vasoconstrictor secreted primarily by endothelial and various epithelial cancer cells has been implicated in prostate cancer progression and the ET axis has been suggested to represent a novel and exciting target in the treatment of prostate cancer (PCa). ET-1, acting primarily through the endothelin receptors (ETRs) is integrally involved in multiple facets of PCa progression, including cell growth, inhibition of apoptosis, angiogenesis and development of bone metastases. ET-1 and ETRs are expressed in PCa tissues and their expression is modulated during the evolution of these cancers. The purpose of the present work was to study the effects of ET-1 on proliferation of human PCa cells PC-3 and the mechanisms by which the activation of ETRs may promote the PCa cells growth. Methods: Prostate cancer cell lines and primary cultured epithelial cells from prostate cancer, RT-PCR and calcium imaging techniques were used to study the expression and functionality of the Endothelin receptors and involvement of ion channels in the effects of ET-1 in prostate cancer cells. Results: We show for the first time that the application of ET-1 induces a dose-dependent cell proliferation and an increase in intracellular free Ca2+ concentrations ([Ca2+]i) via a mobilisation of the internal calcium stores and by a capacitative calcium entry (CCE). These effects of ET-1 were completely abolished by BQ123, a selective ETAR antagonist, but not by BQ788, a selective ETBR antagonist. By use of pharmacological inhibitors and siRNA targeting calcium-activated (IKCa1 and BKCa) potassium channels and calcium channels (TRPC1, TRPV6, Orai1), we showed that these ion channels play an important role in calcium entry and cell proliferation induced by ET-1 in PCa cells. Conclusion: These results suggest that these ions channels evidenced here might constitute potential targets to block the ET axis in human prostate cancers.