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This study used an integrated approach to investigate geological structure and tectonic evolution in Central Afghanistan. Several image processing techniques have been separately and simultaneously applied to data obtained from Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) and Digital Elevation Models (DEM) to constrain the geological structure of the study area. Satellite images were combined with Gravity data to better understand 3D geology in the area. Analysis and interpretation of the extracted lineaments indicate that the Central Afghanistan area is controlled by two main fault systems, trending NE and EW. The two trends represent the remnants of reactivated structures that formed under the stress regimes generated during the tectonic evolution of Central Afghanistan. Gravity data indicate a NE trending basin. A two- dimensional (2D) schematic model shows that the basin deepens in the central area and gradually shallows towards the edges. The integration of the results gave insight into the tectonic evolution of the Central Afghanistan area and the adjacent areas.