Journal of Geography  & Natural Disasters

Journal of Geography  & Natural Disasters
Open Access

ISSN: 2167-0587


Inherent Errors in Using Continental Crustal Averages and Legislated Accepted Values in the Determination of Enrichment Factors (EFs): A Case Study in Northern Ghana in Developing Environmental Policies

Emmanuel Arhin, Hassina Mouri and Raymond Kazapoe

Health problems related to geological and environmental processes often have been assessed using enrichment factors derived from global and legislated accepted values. The petrological studies and the analysis of soils in this study reveals elements storage and concentrations in the environment exposed to life depends on several factors which are not incorporated using the example the continental crustal averages and the accepted legislated values. The results from the study suggest the establishment of local background values particularly from more large-scale surveys where quality and statistically significant environmental data had been collected for local background value estimation for enrichment factors. The continental crustal averages and legislated values either overestimate or underestimate the enrichment or depletion factors hence making policies developed from them unreal. General name granite can be given to a suite of rocks but their mineralogical and modal compositions will vary. Same continental crustal average can be used for them whilst disregarding the local environmental activities. The study concludes from the results in the petrological studies of rocks in Bongo and environmental soil studies at Nadowli that EFs calculated from the local background values can be used appropriately to propagate the true environmental policy to clean up the environment against the related health issues connected with the geogenic and anthropogenic processes than continental crustal averages as well as the legislated accepted values that may have no relationship with the study environment.