Journal of Antivirals & Antiretrovirals

Journal of Antivirals & Antiretrovirals
Open Access

ISSN: 1948-5964


Increasing trend of Viral Morbidity & Mortality even in an Era of HAART Intervention Strategies: A Study of Mono and Co-infection of Subjects Accessing Care in Some Selected Facilities in Niger Delta

*Azuonwu Obioma, Ihua Nnenna, Eze Evelyn Mgebeoma

Across the globe, vulnerable subjects are burdened with mono infections of HIV, Hepatitis B and C virus infections; however, with the increasing trend of robust awareness and intervention advocacy targeted towards early diagnosis, prevention and other management strategies in place, it is expected that the prevalence of the infection would be drastically reduced in an appreciable manner among vulnerable groups in our communities. Nonetheless, it is strongly believed that commensurate preparedness and early detection and smart management of co-infections, especially in the developing communities’ remains key and paramount, if the fight must be moved to the next level of robust health care priority outcome. However, there seems to be practical evidence of scarcity of information and probably dearth of robust reliable data in the region, thus this present study investigated viral mono and co-infections (dual and triple) among selected subjects in some selected facilities. Nonetheless, this observational cross sectional study recruited 3,062 subjects, with about 250 from a cohort of HIV subjects. Laboratory diagnosis involved sequential testing using both qualitative (MP rapid kits and ELISA) and quantitative (Molecular-primer design q16 real-time PCR). Nevertheless, Gpower version 3.2 was used to estimate the sample size, even as the qualitative and quantitative data analysis involved the use of frequency and percentage outcome for descriptive analysis, while Chi square, correlation for association and odd ratio were explored using SPSS version 21, even as hypothesis were tested at 0.05 significant level. Significant difference was observed between the mono and coinfection rates; education, marital status and body mass index also showed evidence of significance (p<0.05) with chi square. Furthermore, exposure to most risk factors appeared small and general low sero-prevalence. Moreover, low incidence rates of 2.8% and 2.4% for Hepatitis B and C were observed respectively. Most risk factors correlated with viral infection. Further risk estimate using odd ratio showed two or more-fold increase for the exposed, although low disease frequency was reported here, but a retrospective review from this region showed much lower rate meaning, there is a progressive disease frequency transition therefore; care must be taken including adherence to the universal safe practices and precautionary measures. However, vaccination against Hepatitis infection as a preventive measure and its compulsory incorporation in the HIV management procedure must be strongly underpinned in the region, if we must check and manage the increasing trend in our remote communities in good time.

Published Date: 2019-12-06; Received Date: 2019-11-15