Biochemistry & Pharmacology: Open Access

Biochemistry & Pharmacology: Open Access
Open Access

ISSN: 2167-0501


Hidden Deficiency of Micronutrients in Apparently Healthy Children of District Bannu, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

Mohammad Shoaib Khan, Farid ullah Shah, Zahoor Ahmed and Afzal Shah

Objective: The present study was designed to analyze the level of micronutrients among apparently normal and healthy children who were randomly selected from various parts of District Bannu, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan in order to evaluate any hidden deficiency of micronutrients malnutrition. Place and duration of the study: The study was designed & compiled in the Department of Biochemistry, Bannu Medical College, Bannu in 2012 while, analytical analysis of the study was carried out at High tech Laboratory, Agriculture university, Faisalabad. Materials and methods: In this cross-sectional descriptive analytical study, micronutrients in blood samples of pre-school children belonging to various areas of District Bannu, Khyber paktunkhwa, Pakistan were determined by Polarized Zeeman Atomic Absorption Spectrometer, Z-8200, Hitachi Japan. Results: Total number of studied population were 100 individuals, out of which 56 % were healthy children with mean age of 49.83 ± 1.78 months, while 7% were overweight with mean age of 57.29 ± 1.55 months, whereas, 7% were obese with mean age of 59 ± 00 months and 30% were underweight with mean age of 36.07 ± 2.94 months respectively. The mean BMI was 15.45 ± 0.16 kg/m2 in the healthy children, 18.32 ± 0.58 kg/m2 in overweight children, 19.69 ± 0.18 kg/m2 in obese children and 11.28 ± 0.32 kg/m2 in underweight children. Mean iron (Fe) levels and the mean Zinc (Zn) levels of overweight and underweight were slightly lower than healthy and obese (P ≥ 0.05) but not statistically significant. Serum Copper (Cu) levels were significantly increased (P<0.05) in under weight and obese individuals. In the age group of <1 year, the overall mean serum Zinc (Zn) contents were 64.30 ± 5.6 μg/dl, serum Iron (Fe) contents were 59.37 ± 5.1 μg/dl, while serum Copper (Cu) contents were 129.09 ± 10.9 μg/dl respectively. In the age group 1-2 years the mean serum Zinc (Zn) contents were 59.10 ± 3.2 μg/dl, the mean serum Iron (Fe) contents were 55.41 ± 3.2 μg/dl and the mean copper contents were 130.68 ± 13.5 μg/dl respectively. In the age group 2-3 years the mean serum zinc contents were 70.24 ± 4.7 μg/dl, The mean serum iron contents were 64.93 ± 4.6 μg/dl and the mean copper contents were 126.70 ± 7.9 μg/dl respectively. Similarly, in the age group 3-4 years the mean serum Zinc (Zn) contents were 46.78 ± 0.7 μg/dl, the mean serum Iron (Fe) contents were 57.94 ± 4.7 μg/dl and the mean Copper (Cu) contents were 109.09 ± 7.9 μg/dl respectively. Result shows that Zinc (Zn) level is high in age group of 2-3yrs and low in the rest of age groups. Similarly, Iron level is found high in 2-3yrs age group and 4-5 yrs age group. The overall mean serum zinc, iron and copper contents among male children were 65.38 ± 1.7 μg/dl, 64.69 ± 2.2 μg/ dl and 113.35 ± 3.2 μg/dl and among female children were 59.09 ± 2.4 μg/dl, 54.23 ± 2.4 μg/dl and 123.23 ± 5.2 μg/dl respectively. The serum Zinc, Iron and Copper levels in children dependent on mixed food were 56.33 ± 3.8 μg/dl, 55.60 ± 5.0 μg/dl and 81.61 ± 8.04 μg/dl, while on bottle feeding it were 60.57 ± 2.03 μg/dl, 58.86 ± 3.3 μg/dl, 112.99 ± 4.6 μg/ dl and on mother milk it were 64.94 ± 3.8 μg/dl, 62.39 ± 2.2 μg/dl and 121.54 ± 3.8 μg/dl respectively. Conclusion: We found low serum iron level in 25% of children, high serum copper level in 12% and low serum copper level in 07% of children while low serum zinc level in 50% of the children. This study provides basic information to allied health professionals, planners, and policymakers and we hope that it will encourage them to find better ways of combating afore mentioned micronutrients.