ISSN: ISSN: 2329-6674
Background: The extract of Citrullus colocynthis is consider as a source of drug or adjuvant to other therapeutics agents as the pharmacological activities of Citrullus colocynthis studied previously for this plant as antidiarrheal, antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-diabetic and antihyperlipidemic properties.
Aims: To better understand the biochemical and cytotoxic effect of ethanolic raw extract of Egyptian Citrullus colocynthis in Sprague Dawley rat short term of toxicity bioassay.
Methodology: Ethanolic extract of fruits of Citrullus colocynthis was investigated for its sub chronic toxicity on sprague Dawley rats, in order to develop safe doses, we use 30 male rats gavage with 0, 12.5 and 25 mg/kg of Citrullus colocynthis extract twice per week for 8 weeks.
Results: The raw extract of fruits of Citrullus at dose of 12.5 mg and 25 mg/kg induced significant increase in level of creatinine and total protein and increased non-significantly levels of glucose and blood urea while reduced level of triglycerides, total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol significantly when compared with control group. Histopathological examination revealed that kidney of rat treated with Citrullus colocynthis at dose of 12.5 mg/ kg show interstitial chronic inflammatory cell infiltrate while Kidney of SD-rat treated with Citrullus colocynthis at dose of 25 mg/kg show interstitial fibrosis stained with mallory trichrome stain. While liver show lytic necrosis replaced by leukocyte infiltration at dose of 12.5 mg/kg of raw extract and rat treated with Citrullus colocynthis at dose of 25 mg/ kg show interstitial fibrosis stained with mallory trichrome stain.
Conclusion: Raw extract of fruits of Citrullus had adverse effect on liver and kidney while in improving lipid profile and hematology in a novel manner in Sprague Dawley rats at selected dosed.