ISSN: 2161-1149 (Printed)
Extracellular vesicles (EV) are a heterogeneous group of membrane-enclosed structures that are shed from multiple cell types and can contain a variety of bioactive molecules including nucleic acids, lipids, and proteins. They range in size from 50 nm to 5,000 nm and, based on their size, are sub-classified into exosomes, microvesicles and apoptotic bodies. While the content and formation of EV are diverse, research has yet to pinpoint their physiological and pathological roles. This review presents an overview of EV, with focus on exosomes, the most studied EV, and on the cellular processes that mediate their biogenesis. Understanding these mechanisms can shed light on their roles in physiology and disease, and indicate their potential therapeutic efficacy in clinical settings, especially in musculoskeletal diseases.
Published Date: 2019-10-23; Received Date: 2019-10-08