Introduction: Management of lower caliceal stones is challenging. Recent advances in technology have led to the implementation of micro percutaneous nephrolithotomy (microperc) as well as retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) in the management of lower caliceal kidney stones.
Objective: Review of studies evaluating the role of RIRS and microperc techniques for the treatment of lower caliceal kidney stones.
Evidence acquisition: A systematic literature review was performed in September 2017 using the PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science databases to identify relevant studies.
Conclusion: Microperc and RIRS, both are valid options for the treatment of small lower caliceal stones in adult patients. The stone clearance rates in both microperc and RIRS are comparably high and the complication rates are comparably low. Microperc is associated with more post-operative pain and more fall in the haemoglobin level while RIRS is associated with more intraoperative DJ insertion.