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Journal of Genetic Syndromes & Gene Therapy

Journal of Genetic Syndromes & Gene Therapy
Open Access

ISSN: ISSN: 2157-7412

+44 1223 790975

Abstract

Epigenetic Modulation of Mood Disorders

Archer T, Oscar-Berman M, Blum K and Gold MS

Background: Mood disorders are expressed in many heterogeneous forms, varying from anxiety to severe major clinical depression. The disorders are expressed in individual variety through manifestations governed by co-morbidities, symptom frequency, severity, and duration, and the effects of genes on phenotypes. The underlying etiologies of mood disorders consist of complex interactive operations of genetic and environmental factors. The notion of endophenotypes, which encompasses the markers of several underlying liabilities to the disorders, may facilitate efforts to detect and define, through staging, the genetic risks inherent to the extreme complexity of disease state.

Aims: This review evaluates the role of genetic biomarkers in assisting clinical diagnosis, identification of risk factors, and treatment of mood disorders.

Methods: Through a systematic assessment of studies investigating the epigenetic basis for mood disorders, the present review examines the interaction of genes and environment underlying the pathophysiology of these disorders.

Results: The majority of research findings suggest that the notion of endophenotypes, which encompasses the markers of several underlying liabilities to the disorders, may facilitate efforts to detect and define, through staging, the genetic risks inherent to the extreme complexity of the disease states. Several strategies under development and refinement show the propensity for derivation of essential elements in the etiopathogenesis of the disorders affecting drug-efficacy, drug metabolism, and drug adverse effects, e.g., with regard to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. These include: transporter gene expression and genes encoding receptor systems, hypothalamic-pituitaryadrenal axis factors, neurotrophic factors, and inflammatory factors affecting neuroimmune function. Nevertheless, procedural considerations of pharmacogenetics presume the parallel investment of policies and regulations to withstand eventual attempts at misuse, thereby ensuring patient integrity.

Conclusions: Identification of genetic biomarkers facilitates choice of treatment, prediction of response, and prognosis of outcome over a wide spectrum of symptoms associated with affective states, thereby optimizing clinical practice procedures. Epigenetic regulation of primary brain signaling, e.g., serotonin and hypothalamicpituitary-adrenal function, and factors governing their metabolism are necessary considerations. The participation of neurotrophic factors remains indispensable for neurogenesis, survival, and functional maintenance of brain systems.

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