Journal of Geography  & Natural Disasters

Journal of Geography  & Natural Disasters
Open Access

ISSN: 2167-0587


Effect of Climate Change on Fagaceae Airborne Pollen in Japan as Allergic Causative Agent Associated with Food Allergy

Reiko Kishikawa, Toshitaka Yokoyama, Norio Sahashi, Eiko Koto, Chie Oshikawa, Nobuo Soh, Akemi Saito, Tadao Enomoto, Toru Imai, Koji Murayama, Yuma Fukutomi, Masami Taniguchi, Terufumi Shimoda and Tomoaki Iwanaga

Rational: It is no exaggeration to say that Japanese allergic people has increased according to the increase of Japanese Cedar (JC) pollinosis since the first case report, 1964. In Japan allergenic conifer airborne pollen counts have been increasing with a concomitant change in the start of pollination as a result of climate change during about 30 years. We also investigated as if Fagaceae pollen counts have been affected on climate change. In Japan patients with Fagaceae pollinosis is not so clear although this vegetation distributed almost all of Japan Island. Fagaceae pollen antigen has cross-reactivity to Betula (birch) pollen antigen observed in north part of Japan. Especially in Hokkaido district, a lot of patients with birch pollen have rhinoconjunctivitis and pollen related food allergy, oral allergy syndrome (OAS). In order to analyze and ameliorate the suffering of those with pollinosis, we have estimated the correlation between the Fagaceae pollen counts and meteorological conditions affecting those counts and we will inform the tendency of the pollen disperse for prevent and treatment against Fagaceae pollinosis. Method: There are institutions in fifteen locations monitoring airborne pollen by Durham sampler in Japan between the latitude of 30 to 40 degrees north. At each institute daily airborne pollen samples were collected including holidays and sent to our hospital. We counted pollen grains per cm2 through 100 to 400-power microscopes, classifying and summarizing them. From 1986 to 2014 we have referred to the change in monthly mean temperature, humidity, total monthly sunshine duration and amount of global solar radiation at the close to 9 of the pollen monitoring locations by the Meteorological Agency open data. Result: Fagaceae pollen counts have not shown annual fluctuation compared to conifer but have increased gradually. Only total monthly sunshine duration before the pollination in March has a weak significant correlation with Fagaceae pollen counts (r=0.4~0.53, p<0.05) only in some cities. The start of pollination season has been earlier except north of Japan and correlated with March/April mean temperature significantly with the prolongation of pollination season. Conclusion: Fagaceae pollen counts in Japan have been increasing and in the south of Japan Island the pollination season has prolonged during about 30 years climate change. In near future patients with Fagaceae pollinosis will increase in the southern part of Japan and birch/alder pollinosis with oral allergy syndrome will exacerbate during Fagaceae pollination season. We will inform Fagaceae pollen allergen is important for Japanese allergic people from aerobiology site.

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