Shahnawaz Majeed, Shabir Ahmad Mir and Sadhna Sharma
The high death rate and progressive spread of tuberculosis emphasizes the need to address the complexities associated with the disease and its treatment. Complications associated with the disease are associated with the process of inflammation. Host defense system protects the body against pathogen by various inflammatory responses and the same are utilized by the pathogen as an offensive tool to progress inside the host. The genetic factors which determine the expression of inflammatory markers affect the onset of the disease and its treatment. The susceptibility to infection, progression to active or latent form and dissemination to the other sites are governed by the inflammatory responses generated by the host. The prognosis of tuberculosis is not the pathogenic infection but the outcome of the host- pathogen interactions, most of which are still not understood. In this review we discuss the major host inflammatory responses during Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and their role in progression and/or containment of the infection. In addition the possible role of anti-inflammatory drugs as adjunct to the current anti-tuberculosis treatment will be reviewed.