Abstract: This study compares the characteristics of men and women, respectively, participating in two randomized controlled pilot studies whose primary aims were to test the feasibility of yoga as a complementary therapy for smoking cessation. Participants were aged 18-65, generally healthy and were daily smokers. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and chi-square tests examined gender differences in smoking rate, potential treatment mediators, and covariates (e.g., smoking history, health status, weight concerns, mood, and prior withdrawal symptoms). A total of 55 women and 38 men participated in the study. Differences between men and women at enrollment included: women reported significantly greater withdrawal (p<0.005), anxiety (p=0.032), and depression (p=0.027) symptoms than men. More women than men (91% vs. 66%) reported having been told by their doctor to quit smoking (p=0.003), had an existing smoking-related illness (33% vs. 13%; p=0.032), and reported smoking for weight control (15% vs. 0%; p=0.014). Results showed good feasibility for recruiting both men and women into a study using yoga as a complementary therapy for smoking cessation. Results also indicate that interventions may need to be tailored to meet different needs (e.g., addressing co-morbid depression ) between men and women.