For centuries, molecular hydrogen (H2) was supposed to be inactive and useless in the cells of mammals. Scholars reversed this notion by representing that H2 reacts with extremely reactive oxygen species (ROS) like hydroxyl radical (•OH) and peroxynitrite (ONOO-) in cells. H2 has appeared as a uniquely therapeutic and preventive agent, with its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic properties confirmed in surplus of experimental animal models and human studies. H2 can be administered by different approaches, comprising direct inhalation in the form of hydrogen gas, oral intake of hydrogen-rich water (HRW), and injection with hydrogen-rich saline (HRS) against the majority of disease conditions. Numerous antioxidant systems are restricted and unsuccessfully picked up by organelles such as mitochondria, but H2 has the capacity to efficiently enter plasma membranes and penetrate into subcellular organelles, like nucleus and mitochondria. The therapeutic/protective capability of H2 is developing in several human infections and in their experimental animal models, comprising ischemia-reperfusion diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, graft-versus-host disease, multiple organ dysfunction syndromes, to mention some. The medical view of H2 offers evidence-based progress for beneficial use and prospect investigation on H2 for the extensive health of the society. This paper reviews current progress in protective and therapeutic uses of H2 against different human and experimental animal disease models.
Published Date: 2020-01-20; Received Date: 2019-12-27