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Cumulative Incidence and Severity of COVID-19 in Patients with Immune-Mediated Diseases and the Impact of Social Distancing Measures | Abstract
Immunogenetics: Open Access

Immunogenetics: Open Access
Open Access

Abstract

Cumulative Incidence and Severity of COVID-19 in Patients with Immune-Mediated Diseases and the Impact of Social Distancing Measures

Liesa van der Aa, Marijn van der Sluis, Sandra den Otter, Frank van Boven, MW van der Ent, Paul LA van Daele, Virgil ASH Dalm, Jan AM van Laar, P Martin van Hagen, Saskia Rombach and Maud Hermans*

Background: It is a matter of debate whether patients with Immune-Mediated Diseases (IMD) are at increased risk infection with SARS-Cov-2 and a severe course of disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cumulative incidence and severity of COVID-19 among patients with immune-mediated diseases and primary immunodeficiency, taking into account the adherence to social distancing measures.

Methods: A longitudinal cohort study of outpatients of the clinical immunology department of a tertiary medical Centre was conducted, with their household members as control population. Questionnaires regarding COVID-19, severity of disease and adherence to social distancing measures were systematically conducted by telephone. The cumulative incidence was calculated from the beginning of the pandemic until January 29, 2021.

Results: 552 patients (median age 52.4 years (range 18.2-89.0), 61.6% female) with auto-immune/auto-inflammatory diseases or an immunodeficiency and 486 household members (median age 49.8 (range 18.0-88.4) years, 41.8% female) were included. The cumulative incidence of COVID-19 was 8.2% in patients and 9.7% in household members. The hospitalization rate in patients was higher compared to household members (p=0.03). The cumulative incidence of COVID-19 was higher among patients than the general Dutch population (8.2% vs. 5.6%, p<0.001). Adherence to social distancing measures was not associated with lower rates of COVID-19.

Conclusion: The cumulative incidence of COVID-19 was higher among patients with IMD compared to the general population, but similar to their household members, although patients had a more severe course of disease. Adherence to social distancing measures did not appear to influence the cumulative incidence of COVID-19.

Published Date: 2021-08-10; Received Date: 2021-07-20

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