The traditional medicine in Africa in general and specifically in Cameroon does not manage diabetes and arterial hypertension very well. Yet, these pathologies are becoming more prevalent among the populations that need adequate knowledge to fight against them. Therefore the present study was designed to determine the knowledge, attitudes and practices of indigenous people regarding diabetes and hypertension control, and to assess the epidemiological aspects of these diseases in order to reinforce their health education and promote a better health care through traditional medicine. To achieve this objective, 1,131 households including 70 traditional healers, 114 diabetics, 167 hypertensive patients, 30 hypertensive patients-diabetics and other Cameroonians were questioned on their ethnomedical knowledge of diabetes and arterial hypertension. Fifty-eight randomly distributed tribes were taking in account. The elucidation of anthropological and epidemiological aspects of diabetes and hypertension improved the beliefs of indigenous people and facilitated the modernization of diabetes and hypertension comprehension that remained focused on the elucidation of diseases’ causes and complications, as well as on the behaviors that could help translate biomedical terms into locally meaningful metaphors.