Immunome Research

Immunome Research
Open Access

ISSN: 1745-7580


Cancer Treatment in the Checkpoint Inhibitor Era

Ghazaleh Shoja E Razavi

Cross talk between antigen presenting cells, effector T cells and immune regulatory cells through co-stimulatory and inhibitory signals orchestrates the anti-tumor immune response that eventuates in either the effective tumor directed immune activity leading to the tumor removal or an immune suppressed tumor microenvironment leading to the tumor progression and metastasis. The co-stimulatory signals have been shown to be mediated by CD28 and members of the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) family, such as CD40, OX-40, 4-1BB, CD30, and CD27, while the regulatory signals are generally mediated through cytotoxic T lymphocyte activator-4 (CTLA-4) and programmed death -1 (PD-1) receptors that share structural homology with the CD28 co-stimulatory class and also bind to the B7 family members. Despite the observed similarities in their structure and receptors, CTLA-4 and PD-1 show the main regulatory role and considered as checkpoints. Targeting these co-stimulatory or inhibitory receptors with either stimulating or blocking antibodies may lead to the enhanced immune response within tumor microenvironment and clinical benefits.