Considering the limitations of antivenom therapy towards toxicity following envenomation, investigators are probing for effective phytochemicals with promising antivenom effects. In the current study, Cardiospermum halicacabum leaf and callus methanol extracts were investigated for their ability to neutralize Indian cobra (Najanaja) venom. Soxhlet extraction using methanol was performed since leaf and callus extracts demonstrated significant neutralization of N. najavemon in preliminary studies. In vitro neutralizing potential of both extracts were evaluated against phospholipase A2, preoteases and hyaluronidases. In addition, alleviation of N. naja-induced characteristic edema inducing activity, myotoxicity and coagulation, hemolytic activity were performed in mouse models and human blood samples. Leaf and callus methanol extract contained high concentrations of phenols, alkaloids, steroids and saponins and demonstrated significant in vitro inhibition of N. naja PLA2, proteases and hyaluronidase activities at 30-40 µg concentrations. Significant neutralization of N. naja-induced indirect hemolysis, edema, anticoagulant effect and myotoxicity was attained using both extracts. Overall leaf and callus extracts (1mg/kg) postponed animal survival by 33 ± 9.3 and 50 ± 12.4 mins, respectively. C. halicacabum leaf and callus methanol extracts demonstrated significant neutralization of N. naja enzymes that contribute to grievous effects on various tissues/organs. The study scientifically supports the anecdotal use of C. halicacabum in complementary medicine and demonstrates that callus extract is more potent antidote than leaf. Further, callus extract is a potent candidate for isolation of phytochemicals towards management of snakebite.
Published Date: 2021-08-16; Received Date: 2021-04-16