Objectives: The present investigation was carried out to test anti-HIV-1 activity of pure compounds isolated from aerial part extracts of Ocimum basilicum and its parasite Cuscuta campestris.
Materials: The anti-HIV-1 activity of these extracts was performed by use of real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay and high pure viral nucleic acid kit.
Results: The most active fractions were detected by NMR as eugenol and eugenol epoxide respectively in Ocimum basilicum and Cuscuta campestris. The apparent effective concentrations for 50% plaque reduction (EC50) of eugenol and eugenol epoxide were 350 and 80 μg/ml. Time of addition studies demonstrated that the inhibitory effect of eugenol and eugenol epoxide is higher respectively in pre HIV-1 infection and during infection.
Conclusion: These results demonstrate that eugenol and eugenol epoxide may prevent HIV-1 replication with two different mechanisms.