Many people are affected by HIV infection worldwide, lack of ability of modern medication in developing an active vaccine against HIV is a global public health importance. Various aspects such as diseases associated with HIV infection, role of immune cells in diagnosis and treatment, significance of molecular changes during infection, complications in infants, impact of gender and social behaviour and diagnosis of disorders associated with HIV infection were discussed in this review. Affected patients would be associated with acute kidney injury, arterial stiffness, cardiovascular disease, Tuberculosis, intestinal parasite carriage and disruptive sleep apnea. Immune cells like CD4, CD8, CD38 T cells and natural killer cells have a vital role in diagnosis and treatment. DNA vaccines could play a major role to prevent or treat infectious diseases including HIV and would elicit T cell immunity, protective antibody responses and local mucosal immunity protective vaccine against HIV infection. Health professionals are responsible for diagnosis of disorders associated with HIV infection and follow-up of HIV-infected paediatric patients. There is a crucial need to improve and evaluate novel interventions that are tailored for this helpless population. Several factors such as income deficit, Pre-college residence, pornographic film viewing and believe in sexual abstinence for HIV prevention were found to be significant predictors of initiating premarital sex. Younger generations could be advised to maintain the virginity as cultural norm. Incorporation of socio-structural elements and geospatial techniques in analytical approaches would lead to better understanding of local dynamics and develop mediations that increase our facility of targeted HIV prevention services.