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Heparin is an important therapeutic agent for the prophylaxis and treatment of thrombosis. Although effective, heparin can cause, among other adverse effects, bleeding and thrombocytopenia, being obtained from bovine lungs and porcine intestines, causing concern about contamination with pathogenic animal agents. This study aimed at reviewing the literature on the relationship between the sulfated polysaccharides isolated from plants and anticoagulant activity. Based on articles published between 2009 and 2016 was found that sulfation of polysaccharides can potentiate its biological activity, which is, in turn, influenced by the degree of substitution obtained, in the reaction, of the position of the sulfate group in the molecule or the final molecular weight. Thus, it is evident that the interest in the use of plant sulfated polysaccharides in the therapeutic field has increased, demonstrating the relevance of research in the field of drugs and materials.