Muscle dystrophy is a genetic muscle disease which leads to progressive loss of muscle mass and a weakened musculoskeletal system. There are more than 30 types of muscular dystrophy which vary in severity, symptoms, and causes but the major ones are nine types. Duchenne MD is the most common type of muscular dystrophy, and it takes place in most of the cases around 50% of them. Usually, boys are more affected by Duchenne MD because of mutations in X chromosome (X-linked recessive). However, females who carry mutated gene will have few symptoms. If one of the genes responsible for producing and protecting the protein is impacted, Muscle Dystrophy can be affected. The family history of muscular dystrophy and young aged boys are at higher risk of developing the disease (Duchenne MD). However, it exists in all ages, races and both sexes. The general clinical feature of MD is a continuous weakness, diminishing of muscle size, mass, bulk, changes in overall posture and reduction of weight. In advanced cases of muscular dystrophy, patients may not be able to run, kneel, bend, jump or even carry heavy objects. The pathophysiology, it is a defect in a gene positioned on the short arm of chromosome X near the p21 locus which is responsible for the manufacture of dystrophin. There’s no cure for any of the types of Muscular Dystrophy (MD) but the symptoms can be managed by medications, therapies and surgical interventions. The life expectancy of patients varies depending on the progression and type of the disease. This is a comprehensive review study of different aspects of muscular dystrophy and its impact on physical, familial, cultural and socioeconomic life of an individual.
Published Date: 2018-12-21; Received Date: 2018-11-09