Medical & Surgical Urology

Medical & Surgical Urology
Open Access

ISSN: 2168-9857


Endourology is a minimally invasive technique available to treat kidney stones. Stones may be extracted or fragmented using tiny instruments through natural body channels such as the urethra, bladder, and ureter. Endourological procedures include:
1. Urethroscopy: used to treat strictures or blockages of the urethra.

2. Cystoscopy: used to treat bladder stones and tumors. Obstructing prostate tissue can be removed with this approach as well (a procedure called “TURP”). Flexible plastic tubes called stents can be passed up the ureter using cystoscopy and x-rays to relieve blockage of the ureter.
3. Ureteroscopy: used to treat stones and tumors of the ureter.
4. Nephroscopy: used to treat stones and tumors of the kidney lining.

This minimally invasive technique for the disintegration of stones involves the administration of shock waves that are generated by a machine called a lithotriptor. After the machine is calibrated, and the stone has been targeted, shock waves are focused and passed through the body in such a manner that their maximum energy is dispersed at the locale of the stone, with the intent of stone disintegration. The pulverized fragments then pass in the patient’s urine. The procedure works best for smaller stones. Other determinants for success with this treatment technique include stone composition and the specific anatomic location of the stone within the urinary tract.

Related Journals of Endourology

Medical & Surgical Urology, Medical & Clinical Reviews, Clinical Case Reports, Surgery: Open Access, Oncology & Cancer Case Reports, Journal of Endourology, Journal of Urology, World Journal of Urology, BMC Urology, Urology and Andrology Journal, Endoskopie, Urology Case Reports

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