Cytokine Responses | Peer Reviewed Journals
Journal of Cell Science & Therapy

Journal of Cell Science & Therapy
Open Access

ISSN: 2157-7013

Cytokine Responses

They act through cell surface receptors and are especially important in the immune system; cytokines modulate the balance between humoral and cell-based immune responses, and they regulate the maturation, growth, and responsiveness of particular cell populations.Cytokines are a large group of proteins, peptides or glycoproteins that are secreted by specific cells of immune system. Cytokines are a category of signaling molecules that mediate and regulate immunity, inflammation and hematopoiesis.When the immune system is fighting pathogens, cytokines signal immune cells such as T-cells and macrophages to travel to the site of infection. In addition, cytokines activate those cells, stimulating them to produce more cytokines. Normally, this feedback loop is kept in check by the body.

The enhanced cytokine response also leads to the activation of serine kinases that phosphorylate IRS-1 which results in further impairment in insulin metabolic signaling . In this regard, TNF-mediated activation of NF-KB signaling causes activation of mTOR signaling and S6 kinase activation. Decreased bioavailable NO may also occur through increased destruction of NO by reactive oxygen species (ROS) which in turn caused by activation of NADPH oxidases, xanthine oxidase, and mitochondrial production of ROS .

Relevant Topics in Genetics & Molecular Biology