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Tourism Propaganda: A Comparative Analysis of Cross-Regional Stud
Journal of Political Sciences & Public Affairs

Journal of Political Sciences & Public Affairs
Open Access

ISSN: 2332-0761

+44 1300 500008

Short Commentary - (2017) Volume 5, Issue 4

Tourism Propaganda: A Comparative Analysis of Cross-Regional Study

Hsiao-Yueh Y*
Department of Business Administration, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei City, Taiwan
*Corresponding Author: Hsiao-Yueh Y, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei City, Taiwan, Tel: +886 2 2733 3141 Email:

Abstract

This research aims to employ Heritage’s geographic demarcation as a criterion to identify specific tourist information sources and media favorableness differences of 326 international tourists who come from 48 countries. The classification of countries was according to a published book by Heritage. The results support Huertas’s proposed that the public relations practitioners as a certain role maintaining the relationships between the communicative targeting and tourism destinations to meet the needs of audiences. Tourism promotion institution gives priority to satisfy international tourist’ public information needs for the cross-regional ongoing development extends beyond a single country.

Keywords: Media; State control; Services; Commercials; Global tourism

Introduction

Country-specific information related to public relations and communication as a marketing tool. Official public institutions which promote local tourism and economic development. Simply, how tourism news is delivered is just as important as the neutral information provided.

Huertas’s research on fighting for the role of public relations in tourism suggests local tourism promotion hinges on the support of public institutions and highly media concern in the tourism industry [1,2]. Heritage’s geographical classifications are used as a categorical to examine differences in “which” and “how” regions deliver information on tourism through dynamic media.

Heritage’s geographical regions

Heritage’s geographical classification of the world’s nations featuring a complete cartography of the world. A guide to territory of the world’s places based on geographic location, including full coverage of the world’s nations. In an age when international travel, on holiday or on business, is commonplace, this criterion seems the most appropriate.

Marshall’s geography of the land

The land on which we live has always shaped us. It has shaped the wars, the power, politics and social development of the peoples that now inhabit nearly every part of the earth. All leaders are constrained by geography. Their choices are limited by mountains, rivers, seas and concrete. Tim Marshall raised some essential questions about the psychology of nations in describing geographical challenges, as well as providing friendly support in the sticky patches.

Methodology

This study analyzed data obtained from different regions of the world. Respondents come from 48 nations Table 1. Based on Heritage (2000) country classification by region given that respondents belong to 11 geographic regions include: North America (NA), Central America (CA), South America (SA), Europe (EU), Africa (AF), Australasia (AU), Asia, East Asia (EA), Southeast Asia (SEA), Caribbean (CAB), Indian Ocean (IO) Table 2. The standard of classification can be a valid explanation to our results.

Nationality Number of respondents
Angola 1
Argentina 1
Australia 9
Austria 2
Belgium 8
Belize 1
Bosnia and Herzegovina 1
Brazil 5
Bulgaria 1
Canada 13
Chile 1
China 21
Denmark 1
Finland 2
France 15
Germany 21
Guatemala 2
Hungary 1
Indonesia 6
Ireland 6
Italy 2
Japan 6
Lithuania 1
Malaysia 4
Mauritius 2
Mexico 2
Myanmar 1
Netherlands 20
New Zealand 3
Paraguay 1
Philippines 5
Poland 6
Portugal 2
Romania 2
Russia 7
Singapore 6
Slovakia 3
South Africa 4
South Korea 3
Spain 4
ST. Kitt and Nevis 2
Sweden 6
Switzerland 8
Thailand 4
Turkey 2
United Kingdom 23
United States 77
Vietnam 2

Table 1: Sample of respondents.

Region Country
North America Canada, United States
Central America Belize, Guatemala, Mexico
South America Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay
Europe Austria, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Lithuania, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, United Kingdom
Africa Angola, South Africa
Australasia Australia, New Zealand
Asia China, Russia
East Asia Japan, South Korea
Southeast Asia Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam
Caribbean St. Kitts and Nevis
Indian Ocean Mauritius

Table 2: Heritage’s classification of geographical regions.

Totally 326 respondents collected in 2014 between May and August. Data were collected through paper-and-pencil questionnaire at five sites: Chiang Kai-shek Memorial Hall, Taipei 101, DinTaiFung Dumpling House, National Palace Museum, and National Dr. Sun Yat- Sen Memorial Hall.

Data were utilized to measure the perceived importance of travel information sources include 12 items. A 7-point Likert scale was used. Because of previous researchers Heine, Lehman, and Peng pointed out we should see less evidence of cultural differences when we assess them with subjective Likert scales than when we assess them with more objective measures [3]. Therefore, we asked respondents pick all the information they generally use to arrange vacations from a list. Items are the same as previous. Respondents’ media consumption habits were measured in order to make sure their search patterns. Nine items were including.

Findings and Discussion

Table 3 shows the perceived importance of travel information sources and cross-regional comparison results. Regions of Europe, frequently used offline channels and maps to acquire information. Official websites serve as an important source of information when comparing Africa and North America. Three regions are more appreciative of reading guidebooks in English, e.g., Indian Ocean, Australasia, and East Asia. Printed media such as leaflets, pamphlets, and brochure appealed to visitors in Central America.

  NA CA SA EU AF AU Asia EA SEA CAB IO F-value p-value
Social network sites 4.23 5.00 5.13 4.04 5.00 4.67 5.39 5.00 5.57 5.50 5.00 2.820 0.002
Friends/relatives 5.62 5.40 5.50 5.23 6.60 5.08 5.57 6.44 5.93 7.00 7.00 1.843 0.053
Airline websites 3.99 4.00 5.25 4.21 6.40 5.50 4.39 2.56 5.21 4.00 4.00 3.410 0.000
Official websites 4.92 6.20 5.13 4.59 6.00 4.92 4.71 3.33 5.00 3.50 4.50 1.875 0.048
Guidebooks 4.57 3.80 5.25 5.01 4.80 5.67 4.57 5.67 4.93 5.00 6.50 1.389 0.184
Newspaper/magazine 3.04 4.00 4.25 3.63 5.00 3.92 4.29 3.44 4.64 6.00 2.00 2.327 0.012
TV/radio 2.78 3.20 2.00 3.02 3.60 3.83 4.32 3.33 4.36 4.50 2.50 5.424 0.000
Travel guide 4.29 4.20 4.50 4.77 5.40 5.42 4.46 5.44 5.21 5.00 4.50 1.308 0.225
Tourist map 4.38 5.20 5.50 4.81 5.20 5.83 5.11 5.56 5.54 5.50 6.00 1.985 0.034
Brochure 3.81 5.60 3.88 3.87 4.60 5.25 4.18 4.44 4.93 5.00 4.00 2.309 0.012
Leaflets/pamphlets 3.92 5.40 5.13 4.13 5.20 5.83 4.71 4.44 5.43 5.00 5.00 3.119 0.001
Other 3.56 3.80 4.50 3.71 3.80 4.08 3.79 3.89 4.36 5.50 5.50 1.660 0.089

Table 3: Importance of travel information sources: ANOVA analysis.

As shown in Table 4, each region’s promotional platforms contained visitors and residents guide. Newspapers, TV channels, and radio are highly influential in Southeast Asia. This finding indicates that China has allowed increasing access to nonofficial sources of information. Indian Ocean and Caribbean, the top two regions on the latest news, were among the nations receiving the highest amount of information in other. The emphasis on multimedia is of particular importance due to its role as the key source of news in the United States.

  Rank Region Rank Region Rank Region
Social network sites 1 Indian Ocean 2 Caribbean 3 East Asia
Friends/relatives 1 East Asia 2 Indian Ocean 3 South America
Airline websites 1 Caribbean 2 Australasia 3 Central America
Official websites 1 Africa 2 North America 3 Europe
Guidebooks 1 East Asia 2 Australasia 3 Indian Ocean
Newspaper/magazine 1 Asia 2 Southeast Asia 3 Central America
TV/radio 1 Africa 2 Asia 3 Southeast Asia
Travel guide 1 South America 2 Europe 3 Africa
Tourist map 1 Southeast Asia 2 Australasia 3 Asia
Brochure 1 Central America 2 South America 3 East Asia
Leaflets/pamphlets 1 Central America 2 South America 3 Australasia
Other 1 Indian Ocean 2 Caribbean 3 Asia

Table 4: Promotional platforms and cross-regional ranking.

Table 5 illustrates the results of the cross-regional comparison of media consumption habits. St. Kitts and Nevis, a former British colony and has long targeted the mass US tourist market, people generally preferred BBC/ABC. The internet, slow to take off in Japan, but Japan’s online gaming market is fast growing. Newspapers, however, were more likely to impact Mauritians’ view of the world. Media freedoms in Europe and North America have heavily influenced participants’ choices. Advertising in Central America has a substantial amount of revenue over other forms of media.

  NA CA SA EU AF AU Asia EA SEA CAB IO
TV/radio 9% 13% 5% 9% 16% 13% 8% 11% 9% 7% 0%
Newspaper/magazine 6% 0% 11% 11% 11% 6% 6% 10% 8% 9% 22%
Network TV 9% 0% 20% 5% 20% 5% 14% 0% 10% 17% 0%
Internet 9% 12% 9% 8% 3% 7% 9% 13% 10% 6% 14%
Regional paper 13% 0% 0% 19% 47% 0% 21% 0% 0% 0% 0%
Press 9% 0% 23% 19% 0% 18% 23% 0% 8% 0% 0%
Advertising 7% 43% 0% 6% 0% 14% 11% 0% 19% 0% 0%
BBC/ABC 12% 0% 7% 11% 11% 17% 5% 0% 0% 37% 0%
Newssheets 63% 0% 0% 37% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%

Table 5: The percentage of daily media consumption.

Conclusions

The state effectively controls all media. That is, media salience can show some balance in the coverage of the world’s different regions. Tourism news that happen beyond the direct experience of most news guests. Public relations professionals should employ media partnerships when targeting with audiences in the era of global media. In other words, media coverage of travel updates influences the perceived importance of that news. It implies a deeper, more thorough processing of information in content evaluation.

Each region has its own physical and human geography. The land forms, climate, transportation, tourism, people, politics, world affairs, aid spending, defense, economics, resources environment, media and vary greatly from region to region. Media coverage of tourism news then should play an important propaganda function.

Each of the nation’s broadcast media to be of practical help to the spheres of tourism, communications and the index of open access to nonofficial sources of information. Television and radio were free from direct state influence. North Korean television mostly shows praising the qualities of Kim ll Sung and Kim Jong ll. Search engines have been pressured to block Web sites that provide political information that could allegedly jeopardize security, disrupt stability, break laws, or spread superstition. Urban lifestyle in Japan today faces formidable challenges. New subways, maps, trains, hotels, stores, videos, and stadium facilities must be created, all matching or exceeding worldclass standards. More ambitious designs are planned.

References

  1. Huertas A (2008) Public relations and tourism: Fighting for the role of public relations in tourism. Public Relations Review 34: 406-408.
  2. Marshall T (2016) Prisoners of Geography: Ten Maps That Tell You Everything You Need to Know About Global Politics.
Citation: Hsiao-Yueh Y (2017) Tourism Propaganda: A Comparative Analysis of Cross-Regional Study. J Pol Sci Pub Aff 5: 304.

Copyright: © 2017 Hsiao-Yueh Y. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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